Researchers from the Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology worked together to find out whether the Asian Zika virus led to microcephaly in mammals. They injected the virus directly into the brains of fetal mice and found that embryos at a nascent stage failed to get through the virus attack. However, when fetuses were in the 2nd trimester – a stage when the neural progenitor cells intensively expand while generating fresh neurons – were administered the virus, the researchers observed that an increase in the viral blast directly corresponded to the shrinkage of the brain. Interestingly, the virus infected the neural progenitor cells, but almost all cell death was found in neurons, indicating that neurons are affected the most by the Zika virus. While the mammalian model used in the probe displayed direct evidence that the virus triggers microcephaly, the researchers want to investigate further to understand whether it prompts a similar response in humans.
With all the various trades that I put my palms to, I am frequently asked what devices I use to create each work of art. So, in order to please the curiosity of those who go after my work, I have determined to create a blog series that answers this question for each medium I work in. This series will span over a four week period (posted weekly) where I cover the contraptions I use for calligraphy, woodworking, painting, and drawing. To kickstart this series, I determined to begin with Calligraphy. More specifically, the pointed pen. Commencing from the surface up…
This may seem demonstrable to some, but the type of writing surface sometimes varies from different styles of calligraphy. For the pointed pen or script calligraphy. you want to write on a vapid, even surface (as opposed to a slant surface which is required for broad-edge calligraphy).
Table should have slew of room for you to work, unencumbered by clutter and/or any sort of distractions.
Never permit yourself to write where your mitt is elevated above the vapid surface, i.e. writing on a pad of paper. This will inhibit decent arm positioning and whole-arm movement.
Critical when writing script calligraphy as it provides elasticity to the writing surface, permitting the pen to smooch the page ever so softly.
Permits for very fine hairlines
Brings forgiveness to to the writing surface and thus prevents less catching of the acute peak of the pen into the paper.
I use a leather pad from Saddleback leather. I’ve used scrap leather in the past to get the kind of surface I wished, but this leather desk pad has made for a sweet writing/desk practice.
You want your table plane and your paper slick. An utterly slick paper surface gives your pen the freedom to dance fluidly. Avoid paper with fibers that will quickly absorb your ink, lift, and gum up your nib. Avoid paper that is too rigid and stiff, like card stock. These types of paper will negate the supple surface you created with your cushion sheet.
The types of paper I recommend…
For practice paper :
Clarefontaine Writing Pad (but recall, rip off in sheets, never write on the pad itself).
Hammermill 28 lb. Bright White Color Copier Paper
Life Co. Paper from Nanami Paper
For Finished Work:
Strathmore Bristol Plate
Arches 90lb Hotpress Water Color Paper
For black paper. Strathmore Artagain.
There are endless varieties of paints and inks that can be used. To make things plain, these are the ones I use most.
This is the choice ink of past masters as it offers ideal viscosity and fluidity for ornamental penmanship. Albeit this ink is acidic and will cause quicker wear and rip on your nibs, it permits you to create beautiful hairlines and dark, bold shades. My two dearest brands are: McCaffery’s and Old World.
Two. Walnut Ink
This ink is fine when you want to achieve a classic vintage look. It is inexpensive and available at most art supply stores. I buy mine at my local Guiry’s .
My brand of choice: Tom Norton’s .
Five. Sumi Ink
This is Japanese or Chinese Stick Ink.
My choice ink for finished chunks.
A carbon-based ink, which means it is archival and is lightfast (opaque).
Brand of choice: Moon Palace.
Again, there are uncountable types of nibs on the market, making it sometimes difficult to know which ones to choose from. Here are my top three choice of nibs: 1. Leonard Principle
This nib has a acute point that permits fine hairlines yet is supple enough to create thick shades.
Two. Gillott 303
I recommend this nib for finer (smaller lettering) work.
This smaller nib permits you to create fine hairlines, and fairly large shades.
Trio. Zebra G
This is the nib I recommend to anyone fresh to the art. For the heavy-handed beginner, this pen is very forgiving. It also has a acute point and good ripple.
The two primary characteristics to be mindful of when choosing a penholder are functionality and convenience. Here are the top two (oblique) penholders I recommend:
1. Ergonomic Oblique Penholder As some of you know, I create my own penholders, the Ergonomic Oblique being one among many. In the beginning of my calligraphy career, I found many of the penholders available on the market to be unsatisfactory. I exclusively and whole-heartedly recommend my penholders as I have made them to be the very best, faithful contraption I have ever known in the art due to the care and tailored craftsmanship that goes into each one.
My unique ergonomic design embodies functionality and convenience.
Encourages whole-arm movement and decent grip of the pen.
Lends as a gentle reminder of correct arm position.
These specific design elements lend well to both beginners and advanced calligraphers.
My Ergonomic Oblique Penholders are individually carved in various types of wood and hand-poured resin. They can be purchased on Wednesday Pens Day through my website beginning at $350.00 on Wednesdays at 9am MST.
Two. Brian Smith of Unique Oblique Penholders, a talented pen maker from Louisiana makes some beautiful pens that I have had the honor of wielding. You can check out his available penholders on his Etsy site at https://www.etsy.com/shop/UniqueObliques
Question: For those of you who have been around the art of calligraphy for a while, what are your top recommendations for contraptions of the trade?
Wishing you all the best in your calligraphic endeavors!
January 02, 2016
These are excellent recommendations! A quick note: having spent some time in Japan and China, I’m often astonished by the universal praise for Moon Palace sumi ink in the West. This ink is meant for elementary students and, while there’s nothing wrong with it in my view, there are literally hundreds of subtler bottled sumi inks available for those who wish its convenience over stick ink. Many of them are just as black, but much higher quality and can be found online with a little diligent searching.
December 31, 2015
Hello. I am from indonesia and just a beginner in copperplate calligraphy. I like to purchase one of your ergonomic holder. But I have No idea what to choose. And which suit me better. So can you pls Gideon some opinion. Looking forward to hear from you soon, tq
December 30, 2015
While I couldn’t agree more with your nib recommendations, I would stress to anyone desiring better instruments to look into vintage points. While the more affordable of the excellent points such as the Esterbrook 357 or 128 are themselves becoming somewhat scarce, there are still a lot of less well appreciated nibs out there at good prices. For example, I recently acquired a box of Esterbrook 524s for less than one would pay for the better modern nibs and must say that even these pens that were manufactured for students are higher quality than almost anything being made today. If you have the resources and the desire, get a hold of the very best vintage nibs while you still can – they are worth it. The better Gillott’s are absolutely exceptional and last several times longer than their modern counterparts. The Principality especially has a snap to it that makes it both the most responsive pen I’ve ever used as well as remarkably effortless to control, much more so in fact than the Leonardt Principal.
November 17, 2015
September 16, 2015
I recently attempted one of you ergonomic oblique holders, and by the end of one sentence my Spencerian had improved at least 50%! This is obviously the solution to achieving the mitt position I’ve struggled with for years. Alas, your holders are miles beyond my price range. Have you considered making a less expensive version – perhaps cast in resin or some plastic – or an adapter to glue onto other obliques? In the meantime, I’m waiting for a back-ordered Carrot oblique in hopes that it’s fat enough to chop away a bit here and there to treatment the form of your holders.
By the way – your work is magnificent – but you already knew that
September 14, 2015
I am so very interested in this. I have loved writing and calligraphy since I was introduced to it in high school and had no idea there was such height to which I could aspire!
Where can I find more information about courses of examine?
September 13, 2015
Maravilloso su trabajo, se ve el talento y preocupacion que dedica a cada una de sus obras…. Bravo eres un Davinci de esta era
You truly have inspired me. Which book or books would you recommend? Or do you have a book for beginners? Thank you! Gracias!
September 12, 2015
Thanks Jake for the inspiration. I am further inspired to improve my own handwriting, I am 55, and resurrect the explore of handwriting with my creative writing students.
September 09, 2015
I recently witnessed your FB Human post presenting you as a Master Penman. It was so inspiring I have observed it over and over. I was fairly good with calligraphy in High School and watching your movie has awakened the desire to learn again. I am not sure where to begin and wonder if you could recommend some books and or process to begin to improve my skill? Thank you in advance for your communication.
September 03, 2015
Thank you for sharing your beloved materials! I found out about IAMPETH through your TEDxTalk and am finding the inspiration to practice with pen again.
Related video: La Chanson d’Orphée by Valerie Schoeller (with English translation)
Find an event or topic related to this course that interests you.
Investigate the library’s resources and other available resources. If you choose to investigate a topic for which you must rely intensely on inter-library loans, you may not receive enough material in time to accomplish your research. You need to find an area in which there is available material. If you find there is not enough material on your topic, choose a different topic and begin a fresh search to see if you can successfully finish the research for your paper on your fresh topic.
Read generally in the topic area of your choice.
Style a precise question that you wish to research. The question that you ask is your research question. The aim of your research paper is to provide an reaction to your research question. NOTE. To be a question, your research question must end with a question mark.
Your question might be something like: Under what conditions will x occur? What are the causes of x? What are the consequences of x and y? How did x alter the outcome of y? You want to avoid asking self evident questions such as, “Will war in country x contort development?” Obviously war affects a country’s development and you do not need to do research to persuade the reader of this. Also, such a question is too broad for a focused research paper. “Development” is too encompassing a concept. You could not in a single paper analyze all of the effects of war on the development of an entire country.
II. Develop a research design
To do this you must think through what you need to know in order to response your research question. What specific data would be helpful in answering your question? Which actors are involved? What outer and/or domestic events might affect the topic you are studying? Where will you get the data you need?
III. Develop a thesis
You must suggest a thesis in the introduction of your paper. After researching your material, you will response your research question. The response to your research question will form the basis of your thesis. The thesis is the argument that you will make in your paper. Presenting your reaction to the research question is the reason why you write the paper. You write the paper to coax your reader that your reaction is correct. You must provide the reader with evidence you discovered in your research to persuade the reader that your response is correct. You must anticipate alternative answers to your question and refute them. You must explain why your reaction is better.
Note that if you announce to your reader in your introduction that you “propose to explore” your topic, you admit that you have not thought long and hard enough about your topic to make a statement or suggest an argument about some aspect of the topic. If you are still “exploring your topic” when you are writing your paper and you cannot even form a question and suggest and response – you will be graded accordingly.
IV. Make decent citations for all data used in the paper. All papers must have references
and a bibliography.
Go after the citation style used in the American Political Science Review. (The APSR is the preeminent journal for political scientists.) You can find hard copies of the APSR in the periodicals section of the Bailey-Howe library (on the 2nd floor). You can find electronic copies of the journal by going to the library webpage http://sageunix.uvm.edu/Collections/ then select “General Reference” then select “Journals and Magazines” then select “JSTOR” then come in JSTOR and select “browse the journal” then select “political science” then select “American Political Science Review” then choose a volume and an issue and finally… select “view article”. Alternatively, you can go after the style of footnotes introduced in the Chicago Manual of Style http://www.wisc.edu/writetest/Handbook/DocChicago.html .
You will see that the APSR uses parenthetical references to the author and the date in the assets of the text. Then the finish citation for each reference is listed in alphabetical order in the bibliography.
Plagiarized papers will be reported to the Committee on Academic Honesty. Below you will find an example of plagiarism that you must not repeat.
General X believed that … (no footnote or parenthetical reference).
If you have interviewed General X, you must footnote the date and place of your interview. If you have not personally interviewed General X, then the only way that you can know what he believed is from reading someone else’s work. You may not take credit for the work someone else did. You must cite your source.
If, however, you think General X should have thought that, or most likely thought that, but you have no evidence and no sources, you may not write such a statement in a scholarly paper. In this case, no one cares what you think General X should have thought. Your assertion that the General thought something without suggesting any evidence is merely a figment of your imagination. Do not attempt to suggest that figments of your imagination are the result of scholarly research.
You cannot submit a “paper” that is merely a string of quotes from various sources. When you write a paper, your thesis (the argument you make to response your research question) should reflect your own (original) thinking. You should arrive at your thesis as a result of piecing together the evidence/data you have compiled. You must do the work for your paper. You must evaluate, analyze, and suggest judgments on the evidence you suggest – and your evaluations must be based on the accumulated evidence, not wishful thinking.
Your sources must be varied. Reading several Internet pages does not constitute careful, scholarly research. Your research sources should include scholarly, journalistic, and primary materials.
Scholarly sources include books and journal articles. You can search for books related to your topic on Voyager at http://voyager.uvm.edu/. Only reading books, however, is not good enough. Books often take much longer than journal articles to publish and therefore the information found in books is frequently less current than the information found in journal articles. The best way to find journal articles is through “ArticleFirst”. To access “ArticleFirst” go to the library webpage http://sageunix.uvm.edu/Collections/ then select “General Reference” then select “Journals and Magazines” then select “ArticleFirst”. Then search for journal articles related to your research question.
Journalistic sources include the LADB, newspapers, and magazines. Newspapers such as the Fresh York Times, The Wall Street Journal, The Christian Science Monitor, The Economist are all good sources for international news. If you can read the language of the country you are studying, then consult the major newspapers from that country on the Internet.
Primary materials include official documents, government hearings, treaties, State Department bulletins, speeches, memoirs, interviews, World Bank and International Monetary Fund statistics, government statistics. A good source for Statisctical data on Latin America is The Statistical Abstract of Latin America available in the reference section of the Bailey/Howe Library call number HA935.S79. Also check out the World Development Indicators (available on Sage under “Find Articles and More” then “Alphabetical List of Databases” *NOTE: you must be in the library to access this database).
The reference librarians are a good resource and you should consult them for questions about sources.
V. Write the paper
Proofread the paper. Rewrite the paper. Ask your roomie to proofread the paper. Rewrite the paper again. Ask your mom to proofread the paper. Rewrite it again. The more times you proofread and rewrite the paper, the better the paper will be and the higher your grade will be.
Reminisce, for your paper, you need to add something to the work of other authors, you should not just repeat someone else’s thesis.
Organize your paper in the following way:
Introduction. Begin the paper by identifying your research question. Then explain why your question is significant. Suggest your thesis – a quick version of your reaction to the research question (one or two sentences).
Literature Review. Discuss the existing scholarly literature that relates to your question and explain why the existing literature does not adequately address the question you pose, thus telling the reader why your research had to be conducted and why your paper must be read if the reader is interested in the response to your significant question.
Data. Present your evidence so that it supports your thesis (that is the reaction to your research question)
Conclusion. Summarize your findings and restate your thesis, which answers your research question. Do not add fresh information in the conclusion – all evidence should be in the Data section.
You may not write “this year …” or “this week…” You must specify particular dates. A reader should understand your time framework whatever date they happen to read your paper.
* To write a sophisticated paper, you should conduct your research in light of the significant theories of political science. You might ask a question and suggest an response that either confirms or disconfirms a theory in the discipline. You might research a question and detect that there does not exist any good theory in the field to suggest insight into your research question. In this case, you might analyze the existing literature and explain how your research offers a hypothesis to explain why some phenomena occur.
When she asked, I had just posted a photo of my outgoing mail on Instagram so I assumed she meant stationery rather than tied notebooks and the like.
There are lots of lovely options for stationery and writing paper but, like notebooks, each option has its own set of criteria, costs and advantages. I hope to cover a few but please leave comments and questions if I missed something.
If you’re looking, very first and foremost, for paper for fountain pens then I would recommend purchasing Original Crown Mill ($9 for a pad of 100 half-sheets) or G. Lalo ($12 for 50 half-sheet pad) paper and envelopes ($9-$14.50 for pack of 25), both available at Goulet Pens and other fine shops that sell fountain pens and stationery.
Paper Source sells utter 8.Five″x11″ sheets of paper (a 10-pack is about $Two.50 however I’d avoid the metallics which tend to stand against ink more so than plain paper) in packs and could be cut in half for a more classic letter size in an array of colors. Not of all the paper will be fine for fountain pens but its a puny investment and most papers should work well with other sorts of writing devices like gel ink pens, ballpoint or rollerball. Or you could order paper directly from a paper company like French Paper — straight from the source.
If you’re feeling particularly decadent, you could purchase some of Smythson’s fine writing paper ($25 for 50 sheets) Crane and Co. carries letter sheets, some can be personalized as well but this is not an inexpensive option.
If you’re looking for vapid cards, Greer Chicago carries some Original Crown Mill and G. Lalo card sets with tissue-lined envelopes and deckle edges — fairly sumptuous! The Vickerey also sells a lot of European style notecard sets.
If what you’re wanting is something with decorative designs on it, very first I’d recommend Rifle Paper Co. They have some lovely stationery sets and various vapid and folded notecards. Chronicle Books also carries lots of paper sets and blank notecards with a broad array of designs. The paper is not always the best for fountain pens, if that’s a concern but the sets are lovely and often come with stickers to seal or use to address your envelopes.
If you still haven’t found what you’re looking for I’d recommend heading to Etsy. Some of the superb options I found were letterpress lined papers from Ilfant Press. playful letter sets from La Paperie. and lots of vintage stationery and letter sets. Just do a search for «vintage writing paper» or «vintage letter sets» and you should find lots of options to choose from.
And eventually, if you’ve determined to go with a plain paper option but would still like to add some flourish to it, you can look about the internet for downloadable PDF files that you could copy onto your stationery. I would recommend copying one sheet very first and testing to make sure that the copier did not glaze your paper in fuser oil of other ink resistant goo before copying onto all of your lovely paper. A fine example of well-designed, free downloadable stationery is from How About Orange (showcase above).
The latest Uppercase Stationery Guide is a excellent resource for finding a stationery shop or custom-built printer near you.
(shoutout to Letter Writers Alliance for the Uppercase Stationery Guide peak)
Related video: Awarded project in India by M. Anastasakis Architects
The rise of mass authorship and fractional authorship: Do too many cooks spoil the broth?
The archetypal photo of a researcher publishing investigate findings as a lone author is long passe. Research is now primarily a collaborative and often an interdisciplinary endeavor. Unsurprisingly, this shift is echoed in the patterns of scientific publications: the author list in many scientific fields has lengthened significantly. But the trend of numerous authorship has evolved into what is called ‘hyperauthorship’ or ‘mass authorship’ with some papers having thousands of authors. For example, a physics paper authored by more than 5000 researchers at CERN, which provides a precise estimate of the size of the Higgs boson, set the record for the largest number of contributors to a paper; while a paper on the genetic makeup of a fruit fly was credited to 1,014 authors. The publishing of papers with thousands of authors, also referred to as ‘kilo-authorship,’ has sparked discussions in academic circles about the meaning of authorship and whether the trend of hyperauthorship is making the credibility and accountability of author contribution questionable.
Hyperauthorship has been a norm in some scientific fields, such as high-energy physics and biomedicine, where collaborations in enormous teams is common. However, a similar uptrend is being observed in other fields such as psychology and health policy. A probe conducted by Dr. Andrew Plume and Dr. Daphne van Weijen found that over the past ten years, the number of authorships per author (Two.31 in 2013) has enhanced while the number of single-author articles (0.56 in 2013) has declined. At the same time, the average number of authorships per article has enlargened from Trio.Five to Four.15 authors from 2003 to 2013. As clearly indicated in the probe, the increase in the number of authors per article and the relative decrease in unique authorship indicate the rise of ‘fractional authorship,’ which means more number of authors claiming credit for a single published work.
The shift in the publishing landscape toward fractional authorship and mass authorship has led some authors to have an exceptionally prolific record, with some researchers churning out an article every ten working days. Some believe that large author lists is an unscrupulous method adopted by some researchers to improve their citation record. Ernesto Priego, Lecturer in Library Science, City University London, says hyperauthorship “in addition to being impractical […] is also menacing the entire system by which academic work is rewarded.” Since a researcher’s career progression is primarily based on the publication and citation record, universities and funding bods should be wary of researchers’ exact contribution to the papers on which they have been listed as authors.
What has led to this rising trend of hyperauthorship? Extreme competition due to the ‘publish or perish’ culture and international collaborations are deemed to be the primary reasons for the rise of mass authorship. Apart from this, the practice of senior scholars seeking ‘gift authorship’ from youthfull researchers has also led to this phenomenon. As Zen Faulkes elucidates, “We’re observing things that might have, at one point, just been a thank you at the end of the paper [become], hey, could you put my name on this paper as an author?”
The switching trends in conducting research warrant the rethinking of the definition of an author. The widely accepted criteria for authorship, as defined by ICMJE, are that an author should have made substantial contributions to the investigate as well as to drafting the work, and should be able to identify all co-authors on a probe and their contribution. In papers that have over a thousand authors, students who contributed in data analysis and so forward have also been added as authors to the paper. Therefore, Faulkes suggests providing up the term “authorship” and focusing on “credits” that describe with greater clarity the contribution individuals make.
Research collaborations are critical to scientific progress. However, institutions and funding bods need to ensure that large-scale collaborations do not branch out into fractional authorship. Additionally, ethical figures can play a pivotal role in bringing clarity to the definition of authorship by defining the roles of an author and a contributor, thus preserving research integrity.
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