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Footnotes in tables (part Two): formatting, spacing, and punctuation

Footnotes in tables (part Two): formatting, spacing, and punctuation

Now that we have dealt with the use of footnotes in tables in a general way [refer to the earlier post here], let us consider some points of detail.

Formatting the footnote marker: A footnote marker should stand out from the surrounding text, which is why it is common to make the superscript letters or numerals used as footnote markers bold. It is even more helpful not only to make the marker bold but also to italicize it so that it leans away from the text that it qualifies.

Make sure that in setting the marker as a superscript, you are not making the character too petite; if it is too puny, either use a larger font size or increase the default value for superscripts used by the software package.

If the font that you are using includes decent superscript numerals, use those. You can see the difference for yourself by comparing a superscripted Two with that obtained by pressing Alt + 0178 (2 versus ?). You will notice that decent superscripts are as dark as the rest of the text, whereas superscripted characters are lighter.

Lastly, check that the column alignment is intact: in a right-aligned column of numbers, for example, the number to which a footnote has been linked should not be shoved to the left to make room for the marker; instead, the marker is “draped,” that is, it is placed to the right of the number but outside the column.

Footnote marker at the foot: Some journal publishers do away with the superscript when the marker is reproduced at the foot instantly before the text of the footnote. The ? used as a footnote marker in the table, for example, will be printed as Two at the foot of the table. These “unsuperscripted” characters are sometimes referred to as “in-line” characters. Observe the practice followed by the target journal and use that.

The text of the footnote commences instantly – with a minimal gap – after the footnote marker. If the superscript form is retained, beginning the text of the footnote with a capital letter can obscure the marker. Again, go after the style of the target journal.

Terminal punctuation: If the text of the footnote is a finish sentence or runs to more than a single sentence, use total stops (periods) as adequate. If the text is a single word or a phrase or a sentence fragment, no terminal punctuation is required.

More than one footnote in a line: Short footnotes are usually set as a block of text. In other words, the footnotes are “run on” one after the other, separated with a single space, the block being as broad as the lines that make up the normal text or as broad as the table to which the footnotes are affixed. However, do not arrange the footnotes in columns even if the target journal uses such a layout. It is then best to begin each footnote on a fresh line and leave the layout to the publisher.

The following article gives a more detailed tutorial on how to present your tables and figures for the best possible influence: Tips on effective use of tables and figures in research papers. 

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Mouse fetuses injected with Zika virus get microcephaly

Mouse fetuses injected with Zika virus get microcephaly

Researchers from the Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology worked together to find out whether the Asian Zika virus led to microcephaly in mammals. They injected the virus directly into the brains of fetal mice and found that embryos at a nascent stage failed to get through the virus attack. However, when fetuses were in the 2nd trimester – a stage when the neural progenitor cells intensively expand while generating fresh neurons – were administered the virus, the researchers observed that an increase in the viral blast directly corresponded to the shrinkage of the brain. Interestingly, the virus infected the neural progenitor cells, but almost all cell death was found in neurons, indicating that neurons are affected the most by the Zika virus. While the mammalian model used in the probe displayed direct evidence that the virus triggers microcephaly, the researchers want to investigate further to understand whether it prompts a similar response in humans.

Read more in Science Daily. 

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Cause and effect papers use analysis to examine the reasons for and the outcomes of situations. They are an attempt to detect either the origins of something, such as an event or a decision, the effects or results that can be decently attributed to it, or both.

Cause and effect papers reaction questions like the following (“A” is your topic):

  • Why did A happen? (discovering the causes of A)
  • What happened as a result of A? (discovering the effects of A)
  • What might happen as a result of A? (predicting further effects of A)

You may write a cause and effect paper primarily about causes, primarily about effects, or a combination of both.

Discovering causes
Before you begin writing or even researching, make a list of all the causes of this event you already know about. Ask questions like these: Why did this happen? What preconditions existed? Were the results foreseen? Could they have been foreseen? Then do some preliminary research, using what you already know to guide the direction of your reading. Switch or add to your original list of causes to reflect fresh information gathered from your research. Done in depth, this kind of analysis is likely to uncover an almost unlimited chain of linked causes, far more than you can effectively address in one paper. Identify one to three of them as more significant (or interesting, or overlooked) than the others. Then, acknowledging that numerous causes exist, limit your discussion to those most significant (or interesting, or overlooked).

As you brainstorm possible causes, do not fall into the trap of thinking that, simply because one event followed another, that there was necessarily a causal relationship. (The mere fact that four youths were seen running away from the scene of an brunt does not itself logically implicate them in the brunt; they could have been running for help, pursuing down the alleged criminal, or simply jogging by.)

Also, do not confuse a necessary precondition for a cause: A large number of costumed students milling about in downtown Chico on Halloween night may be a necessary precondition for a riot, but it is not, in itself, the cause of a riot.

As you write, use the transitions, or signal words, that tell readers you are demonstrating causal relationships inbetween your ideas:

The following example names the cause very first, followed by the effect:

Because the technology program received independent funding from grants and federal Title I funds, it was relatively untouched by the school district’s own budget cuts.

Discovering effects
If you choose to write about effects, very first brainstorm: Make a list of all the effects you know about, and use this list to direct your research to learn more. Have the effects had fine influence on history, culture, or your own life? Or have they had a petite influence with few results? Again, be sure you can demonstrate the causal relationship.

Just as there are usually several causes for anything, there are a multitude of effects that proceed from any one cause. Don’t attempt to address a long chain of effects in one paper. Acknowledge that many effects of various kinds exist, and then limit your discussion to the most significant ones.

Transition words that suggest to the reader that you are discussing effects include the following:

The following statement names a cause very first, and then an effect:

Employees at companies that suggest lithe work schedules are more productive and file fewer claims for mental-health benefits; consequently, the number of companies suggesting flextime is on the rise.

(As a matter of argument, you could claim that the example above shows two linked effects of the flextime policy: Very first, it caused employees to be more productive; and 2nd, their enhanced productivity, in turn, caused more companies to adopt flextime. Linked causes and effects are typical of this type of paper.)

Predicting results
Cause and effect papers often make predictions based on known facts, trends, and developments. Prediction moves from the known and observable into the unknown and possible. Prediction attempts to reaction questions like these: What are the possible or likely consequences? Are these results likely to have superb influence on my life or the lives of others? Are these results likely to have excellent influence on shaping public policy, society, or history? What preconditions would have to exist before my predictions could come about?

If you choose to make predictions, as is common, for example, in political science, education, science, and philosophy, be sure to use credible evidence and strong reasoning. If you do not treat predictions with finesse and ground them in established fact, they are apt to emerge fantastic and unbelievable.

Avoid overstating your case; use language couched in an suitable degree of uncertainty (might, may well be, is likely to, can expect, is entirely possible ). Signal words and verb forms such as these suggest to the reader that you are making the budge from observation to prediction:

Here is a prediction using two of the above transitions:

If the governor fails to clearly proclaim his position and take a leadership role in reforming the state’s workers’ compensation system, voters are likely to take matters into their own palms and call for a statewide referendum.

A cause and effect paper relies strongly on your analysis of the situation. Albeit there are many ways to interpret any situation and the effects that it has produced, in the end the wooing power of your paper depends on specific evidence, clear and persuading language, and logical development.

Peak Sheet

Cause and effect papers use analysis to examine the reasons for and the outcomes of situations. They are an attempt to detect either the origins of something, such as an event or a decision, the effects or results that can be decently attributed to it, or both.

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Ask The Desk: Stationery

Ask The Desk: Stationery

Yesterday on Twitter Roxtime asked

Where do you buy writing paper?

When she asked, I had just posted a photo of my outgoing mail on Instagram so I assumed she meant stationery rather than tied notebooks and the like.

There are lots of lovely options for stationery and writing paper but, like notebooks, each option has its own set of criteria, costs and advantages. I hope to cover a few but please leave comments and questions if I missed something.

If you’re looking, very first and foremost, for paper for fountain pens then I would recommend purchasing Original Crown Mill ($9 for a pad of 100 half-sheets) or G. Lalo ($12 for 50 half-sheet pad) paper and envelopes ($9-$14.50 for pack of 25), both available at Goulet Pens and other fine shops that sell fountain pens and stationery.

Paper Source sells utter 8.Five″x11″ sheets of paper (a 10-pack is about $Two.50 however I’d avoid the metallics which tend to stand against ink more so than plain paper) in packs and could be cut in half for a more classic letter size in an array of colors. Not of all the paper will be fine for fountain pens but its a puny investment and most papers should work well with other sorts of writing devices like gel ink pens, ballpoint or rollerball. Or you could order paper directly from a paper company like French Paper — straight from the source.

If you’re feeling particularly decadent, you could purchase some of Smythson’s fine writing paper ($25 for 50 sheets) Crane and Co. carries letter sheets, some can be personalized as well but this is not an inexpensive option.

If you’re looking for vapid cards, Greer Chicago carries some Original Crown Mill and G. Lalo card sets with tissue-lined envelopes and deckle edges — fairly sumptuous! The Vickerey also sells a lot of European style notecard sets.

If what you’re wanting is something with decorative designs on it, very first I’d recommend Rifle Paper Co. They have some lovely stationery sets and various vapid and folded notecards. Chronicle Books also carries lots of paper sets and blank notecards with a broad array of designs. The paper is not always the best for fountain pens, if that’s a concern but the sets are lovely and often come with stickers to seal or use to address your envelopes.

If you still haven’t found what you’re looking for I’d recommend heading to Etsy. Some of the superb options I found were letterpress lined papers from Ilfant Press. playful letter sets from La Paperie. and lots of vintage stationery and letter sets. Just do a search for «vintage writing paper» or «vintage letter sets» and you should find lots of options to choose from.

And eventually, if you’ve determined to go with a plain paper option but would still like to add some flourish to it, you can look about the internet for downloadable PDF files that you could copy onto your stationery. I would recommend copying one sheet very first and testing to make sure that the copier did not glaze your paper in fuser oil of other ink resistant goo before copying onto all of your lovely paper. A fine example of well-designed, free downloadable stationery is from How About Orange (showcase above).

The latest Uppercase Stationery Guide is a excellent resource for finding a stationery shop or custom-built printer near you.

(shoutout to Letter Writers Alliance for the Uppercase Stationery Guide peak)

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Street brainy vs book clever essay

Street brainy vs book clever essay

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The rise of mass authorship and fractional authorship: Do too many cooks spoil the broth?

The rise of mass authorship and fractional authorship: Do too many cooks spoil the broth?

The archetypal photo of a researcher publishing investigate findings as a lone author is long passe. Research is now primarily a collaborative and often an interdisciplinary endeavor. Unsurprisingly, this shift is echoed in the patterns of scientific publications: the author list in many scientific fields has lengthened significantly. But the trend of numerous authorship has evolved into what is called ‘hyperauthorship’ or ‘mass authorship’ with some papers having thousands of authors. For example, a physics paper authored by more than 5000 researchers at CERN, which provides a precise estimate of the size of the Higgs boson, set the record for the largest number of contributors to a paper; while a paper on the genetic makeup of a fruit fly was credited to 1,014 authors. The publishing of papers with thousands of authors, also referred to as ‘kilo-authorship,’ has sparked discussions in academic circles about the meaning of authorship and whether the trend of hyperauthorship is making the credibility and accountability of author contribution questionable.    

Hyperauthorship has been a norm in some scientific fields, such as high-energy physics and biomedicine, where collaborations in enormous teams is common. However, a similar uptrend is being observed in other fields such as psychology and health policy. A probe conducted by Dr. Andrew Plume and Dr. Daphne van Weijen found that over the past ten years, the number of authorships per author (Two.31 in 2013) has enhanced while the number of single-author articles (0.56 in 2013) has declined. At the same time, the average number of authorships per article has enlargened from Trio.Five to Four.15 authors from 2003 to 2013. As clearly indicated in the probe, the increase in the number of authors per article and the relative decrease in unique authorship indicate the rise of ‘fractional authorship,’ which means more number of authors claiming credit for a single published work.

The shift in the publishing landscape toward fractional authorship and mass authorship has led some authors to have an exceptionally prolific record, with some researchers churning out an article every ten working days. Some believe that large author lists is an unscrupulous method adopted by some researchers to improve their citation record. Ernesto Priego, Lecturer in Library Science, City University London, says hyperauthorship “in addition to being impractical […] is also menacing the entire system by which academic work is rewarded.” Since a researcher’s career progression is primarily based on the publication and citation record, universities and funding bods should be wary of researchers’ exact contribution to the papers on which they have been listed as authors.

What has led to this rising trend of hyperauthorship? Extreme competition due to the ‘publish or perish’ culture and international collaborations are deemed to be the primary reasons for the rise of mass authorship. Apart from this, the practice of senior scholars seeking ‘gift authorship’ from youthfull researchers has also led to this phenomenon. As Zen Faulkes elucidates, “We’re observing things that might have, at one point, just been a thank you at the end of the paper [become], hey, could you put my name on this paper as an author?” 

The switching trends in conducting research warrant the rethinking of the definition of an author. The widely accepted criteria for authorship, as defined by ICMJE, are that an author should have made substantial contributions to the investigate as well as to drafting the work, and should be able to identify all co-authors on a probe and their contribution. In papers that have over a thousand authors, students who contributed in data analysis and so forward have also been added as authors to the paper. Therefore, Faulkes suggests providing up the term “authorship” and focusing on “credits” that describe with greater clarity the contribution individuals make.

Research collaborations are critical to scientific progress. However, institutions and funding bods need to ensure that large-scale collaborations do not branch out into fractional authorship. Additionally, ethical figures can play a pivotal role in bringing clarity to the definition of authorship by defining the roles of an author and a contributor, thus preserving research integrity. 

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