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The list of 8 Famous American and World-known essay writers of the 20th century

The list of 8 Famous American and World-known essay writers of the 20th century

They say that there are the writers a separate universe in which they can produce, create their work. An ordinary person is not given the chance to know the deep writer’s life, but even every day we see a fresh crowd of people who stand in line for a fresh book. Everyone expects a miracle, take a fresh book with the hope that something wonderful, inexplicably beautiful, willing to drown in a entirely different world, a world of fantasies and wishes, which shows up to the reader in the next bought book in the various forms: essays, novels, stories, poem.

Today we are going to talk about the best essay writers. ESSAY (fran. Essai) it is the literary form of petite prose text, which express emphasize the author’s individuality. In ease, to the story, the writer’s essay’s facility is to communicate or interpret, but not ever a picture or a histrionic retelling of any life position. The work reaches its purpose through the outright copyright approvals, which do not take the perpetration of no one fictional personage or the plot of a binder. Nevertheless, there is not any hardly absolute difference inbetween different types of essays and brief stories. The main essay’s feature is its brevity, it usually takes from ten up to twenty pages.

There are a excellent amount of interesting, fascinating works, essays, literary works, which were written by the good world famous authors and writers. More than three centuries ago, the very first essay was published at very first. Now, we can find a lot of essays in libraries or have an effortless possibility to order by the Internet miscellanea of works written by well-known authors from all the world from different centuries. Ever since ancient times, essays were published in magazines, books, were grouped by theme, genre, years, and the authors. Details included a diversity of genres, among which are comedy, non-fiction, romance, instructive, historical facts, life stories, and current events. There are many authors and essay, which detailed list you can read here, and it was difficult to identify the most significant and well-known essayists of all time.

The list, about which I have mentioned earlier, includes writers from different backgrounds and periods of history. Some of they are still presently continuing to write. Because this fact, it is nothing surprising in the fact that essay remains a popular literary format. And the authors, who can quickly, shortly, concisely and interesting tell the story will always be on top. selected essayists, but not essays. Because, the best essays are only individual, authorial and deep engaged with author’s issues, internal feelings and ideas.

James Baldwin (1924-1987)

Baldwin grew up in a family of his stepfather, a priest, where he was the eldest of nine children. His own father, Baldwin have never known and was very suffered from that, which was reflected in some of his works (“Tell me when the train left”, “Go Tell it on the Mountain”, “Giovanni’s Room” and others. After Bronx high school graduating, Baldwin moved to Greenwich Village, where he began his literary career.

Greenwich Village has always been considered one of the most abandoned Fresh York areas, caused a wave of optimism in Baldwin’s source, who began to write about his views and understandings of what is happening around him. His very first journalistic articles, essays were imbued with the spirit of racism denial which was prevailing in America at that times. That negative attitude makes youthful writer budge Paris.

Baldwin felt like he caught a breath of fresh air in France, have been saving there from the racist and homophobic America of 40-th. XX century. His main works were written on the banks of the Seine, and there Baldwin have spent the most of his life, producing his creations among which are next well-known essays:

  • James Baldwin and his popular essays published in 1956 “Notes of a Native Son” essays;
  • James Baldwin and his book of interesting essays named “The Demon Finds Work” which was introduced to the mass in 1976;
  • James Baldwin and hisThe Evidence of Things Not Seen(essays; 1985);
  • James Baldwin and his list of essays created in the romantic atmosphere of 85th with the strange name “The Price of the Ticket”;

Norman Mailer (1923-2007)

Norman Mailer was born in Fresh Jersey in the Jewish immigrants family. He was the very first child in the family, and after him, there was also two children – a brother and sister. Norman grew up in Fresh York, and in 1939 determined to become a student of Harvard university, where he have fallen in love with literary activity. His very first story was published at the age of Legal, in 1941. The University of Harvard received youthful author the university magazine award. Among the entire set of his works we would like to highlight the most famous essays:

  • Norman Mailer and his Fresh York book of essays called in the world as “The Presidential Papers” ;
  • Norman Mailer and his 2nd Fresh York creation which is known by the noisy name “Cannibals and Christians” ;
  • Norman Mailer and his “Lumps and Pontifications” in which the author opens the deep world of Little Boston’s Life.
  • Susan Sontag (1933-2004)

    Susan Sontag was born in Fresh York, 16 January 1933 year. Since her childhood, the friends of hers were always only booked. In 1952 Sontag’s family have moved to Boston where Sontag passed entry exams to Harvard University. There youthful writer studied English literature and received a Master of Philosophy in 1954. While have been studying at Oxford in 1955-1957, she has faced with the sexism challenge, and because of this soon moved to Paris. From that time she was actively engaged in the French cinema, philosophy and wrote a lot. Among her essay collection we can emphasize the nest ones: “Against Interpretation”, “Where the Stress Falls”, “Regarding the Agony of Others Styles of Radical Will”.

    Joan Didion (1934-present)

    Joan Didion was born and grew up in Sacramento, California. She was just a five-year-old little female when she have begun to write her very first string. She read everything she could get into her mitts while the parents were not home. In 1956, she graduated from the University of Berkeley and got their Bachelor Degree in Arts and English language. Within her senior years, Joan won the very first place in an essay writing inworld-known Vogue magazine. She created own very first work which was named “Run” and issued in 1963 has been working there in Vogue. Among her essays work we want to mention the next ones:

  • Joan Didion and her “Joan Didion” essays works;
  • Joan Didion and her “Salvador” ;
  • Joan Didion and her essays about Earth planet called “After Henry” (twelve geographical essays);
  • Annie Dillard (1945-present)

    Annie Dillard was born in 1945 and is already alive to present us a lot of her magnificent works. Anni is an American author. She was always well-known for her clear story prose in both nonfiction/fiction, poetry, essays, literary criticism and etc. Among her essays Edusson want to emphasize the next ones:

  • Education stone ”, the book of brief nonfiction essays;
  • Life on the rocks, the book of 14 essays: Total Eclipse, In the Jungle, The Deer at Providencia, A Field of Muffle, On a Hill Far Away, God in the Doorway, Mirage’s, Aces and Eights);
  • Robert Atwan was born in 1940, November Two, in Fresh Jersey. He graduated from Two universities: Seton Hall and Rutgers. He is known as one of the best American essay writers. Among the entire set of his works we highlighted the most famous ones:

  • “Good Moments in Literary Baseball”. on thebasisof the very first game of the season;
  • “Poems and Essays”. essays about Autumn and Winter (Snowy essays);
  • Edward Hoagland (1932- present)

    Edward Hoagland is an American writer, who was born in 1932, in Fresh York. Since his childhood, he was fond of writing, literature and from that time, he determined to become a novelist, essayist. He has a gigantic number of essays, the entire list of which you can find here, and we will mention in our article just a little part of it:

  • “The Big Cats”. written in 1961;
  • “Why this Extra Violence” in April;
  • “The Soul of the Tiger” written when he has fallen in love for the very first time;
  • “Big Frog, Very Petite Pond”. unknown data;
  • “A World Worth Saving and Christmas Observed”. written in 1989;
  • “Two Kinds of People” which was published just in Europe;
  • “Last Call”. 2010, a very interesting one;
  • “On Friendship”. which he wrote in 2013, when he was already a deep old man.
  • David Foster Wallace (1962-2008)

    David Foster Wallace was born in 1968 in the USA.He has graduated the little-known college, where he studied philosophy, there got a degree in English language and literature. For many years, he experienced severe bouts of depression.
    in June 2007, according to the doctor recommendations David stopped taking medication. Depression particularly enhanced In the last months of his life. On September 12, 2008, he committed suicide.There some of this essays:

  • David Foster and his essay “Television and U.S. Fiction”. (an interesting and comic essays book);
  • David Foster and his essays book named “Derivative Sport in Tornado Alley” ;
  • David Foster and his “A Supposedly Joy Thing I’ll Never Do Again” and “Consider the Lobster”. which were both published in 2005;
  • David Foster and his “Both Skin and Not” unknown date of publication.
  • So we see, that the concept “essay” goes beyond the plain students essays writing in college. The best and well-known writers from all over the world created a lot of essays to share with readers their ideas and feelings. Proceed to read and probe the world of famous essay writers, and perhaps, in one day you will have the chance to become a popular essayist too.

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    Completing the antibiotic course may not be necessary

    Completing the antibiotic course may not be necessary

    For decades we’ve been instructed by medical practitioners to finish our course of antibiotics. Most of us have been warned at some point by our doctors that failing to do so would increase the risk of the infectious bacteria developing resistance. However, a recently published probe states this is a baseless claim and could do more harm than good. Shorter antibiotic courses, it is concluded, work just as effectively to treat infections.

    Martin Llewelyn, a Professor in Infectious Diseases at Brighton and Sussex medical school conducted a examine aptly titled ‘The antibiotic course has had its day’ which was recently published in the BMJ. According to the examine, the traditional treatment of continuing to take antibiotics even after one starts feeling better is an outdated concept. The current guidance also doesn’t take into consideration the fact that patients react differently to the same antibiotic and some may need longer courses than others. The fresh explore asserts that when a patient takes any antibiotics, it permits dangerous strains of bacteria to grow on the skin and in the gut which could prove to be dangerous later. More resistance is built in longer courses. Each year, at least 12,000 people die from antibiotic-resistant bugs in the UK. The research team also recommends more research and urges medical practitioners to tailor antibiotic prescriptions to each patient.

    Presently, the National Health Services and the World Health Organisation go after the traditional recommendation and urge everyone to finish the course of antibiotics. This treatment, according to Llewelyn, stems from the fear of undertreatment and overlooks overtreatment. The fear dates back to the time when Nobel Laureate Alexander Fleming discovered that insufficient doses of penicillin could be dangerous as bacteria quickly become acclimatized to penicillin.

    Llewelyn states that reducing the use of antibiotics will help combat the growing problem of antibiotic resistance. Albeit there seems to be widespread skepticism about the explore, most experts are worried about how this should be communicated to the general public. More research may be needed on the duration of the antibiotic course but as of now, patients can be securely advised to stop medication when they feel better. Ideally, clinical trials will help us determine the right length of treatment along with the exact quantity of antibiotics.






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    Posted on: December 17th, 2015 by Julie Bestry | No Comments

    Posted on: December 17th, 2015 by Julie Bestry | No Comments

    Serendipity is an interesting thing. Last year, an unexpected project introduced me to a wide-format clipboard, and a little research into that novelty turned into a revelation about the option of landscape-oriented office supplies. At the time, I mentioned the relative rarity of landscape-formatted writing pads, sourced one, and promptly left behind about them.

    Then, just this week, while attempting to solve the conundrum of my dearest (and abruptly unavailable) purple legal pads. two different blogs would prove to be the inspiration for this post. But not because they were profiling pastels — because they talking about writing pads with landscape orientation .

    All of a sudden, that previously discovered line of landscape-orientation, Roaring Springs Broad LandscapePads , have become this week’s must-have office supply. They come in four varieties:

    • 11″ x 9.Five″, WHITE, college-ruled. Each pad includes 40 sheets of 20-pound, 30% post-consumer recycled paper per pad, with left-side margins. Micro-perforations at the top yield an 11″ x 8.Five″ sheet. (Available singly or in two-pad packs.)
    • 11″ x 9.Five″, CANARY (yellow), college-ruled. Each pad includes 40 sheets of 20-pound, 30% post-consumer recycled paper per pad, with left-side margins. Mirco-perforations at the top yield an 11″ x 8.Five″ sheet. (Available singly or in two-pad packs.)
    • 11″ x 9.Five″, ASSORTED* PASTELS (orchid, pink and blue), college-ruled. Each pad includes 40 sheets of 15-pound 30% post-consumer recycled paper per pad, consumer recycled paper, with left-side margins. Micro-perforations at the top yield an 11″ x 8.Five″ sheet. (Available in three-pad packs .)
  • 11″ x 9.Five″, WHITE, gridded with Five×Five graph paper. Each pad includes 40 sheets of 20-pound, 30% post-consumer recycled paper per pad, with left-side margins and micro-perforations at the top. (Sold singly and in packs of two, four and six .)
  • Punched (for effortless storage in traditional three-ring binders)

  • 11″ x 9.Five″, WHITE, college-ruled, three-hole-punched across the top. Each pad includes 75 sheets of 20-pound, 30% post-consumer recycled paper per pad, with left-side margins, backed by an extra-stiff 80-pt. chipboard backing. Mirco-perforations at the top yield an 11″ x 8.Five″ sheet. (Sold in singly .)
  • 11″ x 9.Five″, CANARY (yellow), college-ruled, three-hole-punched across the top. Each pad includes 75 sheets of 20-pound, 30% post-consumer recycled paper per pad, with left-side margins, backed by an extra-stiff 80-pt. chipboard backing. Micro-perforations at the top yield an 11″ x 8.Five″ sheet. (Sold singly .)
  • 8″ x 6″, WHITE, college-ruled. Each pad includes 40 sheets of 20-pound, 30% post-consumer recycled paper per pad, with left-side margins. Micro-perforations at the top yield an 8″ x Five″ sheet. (Available as individual pads or in multi-packs .)
  • 8″ x 6″, CANARY (yellow), college-ruled. Each pad includes 40 sheets of 20-pound, 30% post-consumer recycled paper per pad, with left-side margins. Micro-perforations at the top yield an 8″ x Five″ sheet. (Available as individual pads in multi-packs .)
  • 8″ x 6″, ASSORTED* PASTELS (orchid, pink and blue), college-ruled. Each pad includes 40 sheets of 15-pound 30% post-consumer recycled paper per pad, consumer recycled paper, with left-side margins. Micro-perforations at the top yield an 8″ x Five″ sheet. (Available in three-pad assorted packs .)
  • *Note: Assorted pastel pads are listed on the website as 50 sheets/pad, but specifications and packaging verify they are 40 sheets/pad.

    Roaring Springs Broad Landscape Pads are sold in office supply stores and on Amazon, and range from $Five.28 for single pads to $13 for three-packs.

    Thanks to Office Supply Geek for reminding me that these pads exist, and The Well-Appointed Desk. for inspiring me to dig more deeply.

    At very first glance, landscape notepads may look a little funny to us — one client said she thought if legal pads were business suits, these landscape pads were more like crop tops. The question, however, is what can you do with them? In fact, Office Supply Geek ‘s Brian Greene actually stated, «To be totally fair, after having them in my palms I still don’t indeed know what I’d do with them that I wouldn’t do with a regular legal pad.»

    Well, Brian, that’s why Paper Doll is here!

    Most of the time, when we hand-write, we are in portrait mode, and it usually makes sense. However, I can think of a sampling of reasons why we might want to have some side-to-side breathing room.

    1) Notetaking — When we’re taking notes in a committee meeting or for class, we’re often creating a linear, outline-style set of notes. But, as we discussed when we reviewed the exceptional Cornell Notetaking Method. we need to make room for cues or other special attention-getting markings on the left side.

    With traditional 8.Five″ broad paper, that either reduces our notetaking space or compels us to write in the narrow margin, making it more likely that we’ll get inky smudges on that all-important cue-section. Landscape orientation provides more breathing room.

    Two) Ergonomics — Look at the available space on and around your desk. If your computer is in front of you, your keyboard is most likely somewhere inbetween elbow-and-wrist distance away, not leaving you very much space for alternating typed notes and handwritten notes. Because of that limited space, you may find you’re turning your traditional (portrait-orientation) notepad sideways, with the top to your left (unless you’re a southpaw). This lets you take written notes, but you’re most likely twisting at the mid-body to do so. This is not sustainable or ergonomically friendly.

    Three) Expansive thought — When we take notes, journal, free-write, or craft letters, we’re often thinking linearly. It’s effortless to go after a unidirectional flow of ideas, or paths, with a narrower chunk of paper. When we’re on the computer, using Microsoft Word or any other word processing program, unless we’re using design features for creating signs or brochures, we echo that same tall/narrow format.

    But what happens when we want to think more broadly (no pun intended)? When we’re on the computer, using a spreadsheet like Excel, we create numerous columns so that we can visualize information best seen side-by-side, like numerous fields in a record. But what’s the paper version? I can think of a number of times when I’ve been working with a client to brainstorm ideas in parallel (like how different departments will treat particular situations), and we end up turning a notepad sideways. The lines go the wrong way, and the content gets messy ; it suffices, but it’s not optimum.

    Four) Mind mappingPaper Doll is a fairly linear thinker, but when I’m attempting to mind-map, or showcase the relationship inbetween different processes, or do anything that’s more visual, I need more space. With some clients, we may choose mind mapping software or apps like MindNode or XMind. but we often find that an analog solution is swifter and more instant. Most often, we end up using numerous Post-It! Notes on a wall or window. That’s excellent when we’re in a house or office, but not so optimal when we’re in the field (even in a field), in a warehouse, or going mobile. That’s where these landscape notepads (and the aforementioned landscape clipboards) indeed come into their own.

    Five) Flow Charts — It might not be instantaneously apparent, but a number of law students have posted online comments regarding how landscape writing pads make it lighter to visualize case-law timelines, precedents and conceptual flow. Scientists have also reported that wide-format paper helps conceptualize scientific reactions more clearly.

    6) Computer/TV Screen Dimensions — Tablets and phones aside, we spend a lot of time looking at screens in landscape orientation, and sometimes we still need to make our analog notes approximate what we’re observing, or make our digital notes approximate what we’d like to be watching on the screen. Writing pads that parallel those dimensions are helpful.

    Granted, web designers are more likely to use paper prototyping implements like the kind we discussed in Tech Planning on Paper: From Old-Fashioned to Cutting Edge. but the rest of us just need a good lump of paper that’s broader than it is tall.

    Oh, but you ARE a web designer (or you play one on television)? Well, then, UI Stencils’ landscape-orientation Responsive Sketchpad may be just what you want.

    Printed on both sides, the landscape-orientation, letter-sized pad is dot-gridded (150 PPI), includes fields for a project’s name, screen, date of work, and notes, as well as two device silhouettes on the front and three on the switch sides.

    The Responsive Sketchpad comes 50 sheets/pad, with a cardboard backing and rounded bottom corners. It runs $12.95/pad and is available at discounted rates in three-packs, five-packs and with other UI Stencils’ sketchpads.

    Upgrading the Landscape

    The Roaring Springs Broad LandscapePads, as well as the more tech oriented UI Stencils’ Responsive Sketchpads, aren’t the haute couture of office supplies. You’ve got something to say, and you can get it down. Function is generally prioritized over form. The Roaring Springs pads are made of recycled paper, and the concentrate for all is in on utility rather than beauty.

    As Ana Reinert pointed out in this week’s The Well-Appointed Desk’s «Ask the Desk» feature. there’s an assumption among notebook/notepad makers that landscape orientation is for the visual artists and not for the scribblers, writers, note-takers and wordsmiths. I think that’s short-sighted, and a bit of frustration.

    Ana’s post suggested up some options for the individual who asked «the Desk» about finding attractive, non-black, fountain-pen-friendly landscape-oriented notebooks. Tall order! The Well-Appointed Desk covered a nice multitude of these, but most of the options were for unlined sketchbook-type pages. For those of us looking for a broad spot in the road to make our (written) mark, the choices are limited. There are handmade options, of course, but whether we’re talking bespoke Etsy creations or fin Italian handcrafted leather bindings, veering from the ordinary is not inexpensive .

    How limited are the choices? One of the only mid-range lined landscape-orientation notebooks I found was an intriguingly named Duller Croquis Note. It’s manufactured in Japan by I.D.E.A. Internationals, with a German name, as part of the Schreibwaren Kollektion. The website is only written in Japanese (the English-language URL yields an error), and the only English-language sales information I could find was through AAREVALO Ltd. in London!

    The notebook contains recycled paper and a mysteriously unexplained «specially textured writing surface.» There’s a «practical pocket» on the back cover, and the notebook also comes in black or light grey.
    So, a Japanese company, selling a notebook described in German, is most lightly accessed through a British stationery company’s online catalog. It shouldn’t have to be so hard!

    It’s a little bit shocking that the go-to journal purveyor for hipsters, scholars, soccer moms and pundits, Moleskine, doesn’t have a single lined landscape-orientation journal or notebook. There indeed should be other widely available options aside from the Rhodia lined landscape Webnotebooks . with orange or black covers.

    Paper Doll will be on the lookout (across the landscape, and over the horizon). Until then, I welcome your ideas for how you’d use landscape notepads and notebooks. and hope you will share your resources for finding lined landscape-orientation journals, notebooks and otherwise upscale writing pads.

    Paper Doll Post:

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    Spring Theme Printables for preschool and kindgergarten

    Spring Theme Printables for preschool and kindgergarten

    Easter and Spring theme free printables for children that you can download and use at home or in a classroom right away.

    Step 1 – Make sure you have Adobe Reader. If you don’t have it, please click on the ‘Get Adobe Reader’ button to install it for free.

    Step Two – Pin this page, bookmark this page, share this page, «Like» us on Facebook or sign up for our newsletter.

    Step Trio – Choose from any of our 250 free downloads, including these free printable Easter and Spring theme printables for kids.

    Elsewhere on this page

    Free Printable Spring and Easter Theme Writing Paper
    Some of our Most Popular Spring and Easter Theme Posts
    Free Printable Spring and Easter Theme Rhymes, Chants and Fingerplays
    Free Printable Spring Picture Dictionary

    Spring and Easter Theme Interlined Writing Paper for Preschool and Kindergarten

    These are just a few of many free printable writing paper downloads available on this site. Please be sure to check out our Writing Paper for Kids page for many more.

    Some related themes to explore

    Some of our Most Popular Spring and Easter Theme Posts

    Hover over the photo for a description. Click on the photo to link to the post.

    Spring and Easter Poems, Songs, Chants for Preschool and Kindergarten

    Adapt these Spring and Easter theme chants and poems as felt board activities and/or use them at preschool or kindergarten circle time.

    Spring Poems for Preschool and Kindergarten

    Easter Poems for Preschool and Kindergarten

    Easter Crossword Puzzle for Children –

    Picture Dictionaries for Easter and Spring

    – Easter and Spring pictures together with words

    Our free vocabulary printables are good and so versatile. Print onto cardstock. Laminate if you wish. Then, cut apart and create a matching activity or encourage your child to «read» the words (using picture clues). As well, beginning writers love to practice printing the words.

    You can create your own categorized picture dictionary if you print more than one. We have many available. Check out our Picture Dictionaries page .

    Gardening Sequencing activity –

    Sequencing activities are excellent for building comprehension abilities

    Commented on April 17, 2013 at 11:53 PM | Reply

    [. ] Spring Kids Printable. [. ]

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  • Paying for talent pays off

    Paying for talent pays off

    Russ Roberts, a research fellow at Stanford University’s Hoover Institution, talks to Matthew Futterman, sportswriter for the Wall Street Journal, about his latest book “Players” on the progress, innovation, and excellence in sports driven by the enlargening professionalism of athletes.

    A clear takeaway from this conversation is that professional sport has disproved two popular management notions that (1) the path to success is conditional on suppressing and paying your workers as little as possible, and (Two) stakeholders should seek to discourage competition in both labor and product markets. 

    Professional sport has been much derided for its crass commercialization. However, by permitting players to exclusively concentrate on and hone their craft it offers viewers a better quality product. This results in a better product that attracts more viewers, which increases the size of the market and raises comebacks for all stakeholders.

    Not so long ago, sport took much misplaced pride in “gentleman” athletes who weren’t compensated for their efforts on the field, thus, keeping out talent that needed to make a living. Even recently, semi-professional athletes often worked in the off-season, which didn’t permit them to concentrate on nutrition, training, practice, and sleep (much undervalued).

    Russ summarizes it well with “The synergy inbetween the appeal of the sport, the quality of the play, and the amount of money in it, which feeds back into the incentive to get better and to be able to market a better product.”

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    • Find credible sources using contraptions that are designed to find the types of sources you need.


    Here are some fantastic resources and tips on how to use them to their fullest extent:

    Librarian/Digital Media Specialist/Teacher

    – Tell one of these people your research topic and ask them to point you towards useful sources. Chances are that they know more about what’s available about your particular topic than you do. Depending on the size of your school, you may have a subject area librarian for the particular type of research you are doing. Some universities, for example, have specialist librarians for topics like music, art, and humanities.

    Peak: When asking your librarian or teacher, just be sure to be tactful. Recall: librarians are there to help, but they won’t do all your research for you.

    Academic journals

    – These journals are a good way to find cutting edge research on your topic. Academic journals add credibility and professionalism to a paper. They work well for both humanities and scientific papers. Most schools/universities have a subscription to a large database of academic journals. Some commonly used databases are JSTOR and EBSCO Host. If you don’t know what types of services your school subscribes to, ask your teacher/librarian about them.

    Another superb way to access academic papers is Google Scholar. It is a search device that finds scholarly articles-academic journals, patents, theses, court proceedings, and more. Google Scholar displays how many times an academic chunk of literature was cited, which is a rough numerical indicator of how influential the research was. Google Scholar also has link under each posting to help you find related articles.

    Microsoft has a competitor to Google Scholar that is very similar, Microsoft Academic Search. Microsoft’s implement works particularly well for technical papers in fields such as physics, mathematics, biology, and engineering.


    – Books are still one of the best ways to find credible information about a source. Some fields such as the humanities choose their students use books for sources rather than websites, since books typically contain more detailed information (and perhaps more in-depth thinking) than websites do. Books can be found on your school or public library website. Type in keywords related to your topic in the search field, and see what kinds of literature comes up. Write down the call number of the book so that you can find it within your library. Ask your librarian for help if you’re not sure how your library is organized.

    Google has another service, Google Books, that will help you find books related to your topic. Just type your research topic into the field and Google Books will provide you with a list of relevant books. Once you click on a book you like, Google Books will give you a preview of the book and information related to buying the book or finding it in your library.


    – Websites are sources you should treatment with caution. Some experts publish superb information on the Internet, but there’s a lot of bad information out there as well. The trick is to weed out the unreliable information. The section entitled «Evaluating sources for credibility» is all about that process. Here, we’ll discuss some good resources that will help you find good information.

    Peak: Multipurpose search engines (Google, Bing, and Yahoo) aren’t necessarily attempting to provide you with the best academic results. They help people with a lot of things (shopping, searching for flights, comparing restaurants). You don’t want all of these sorts of results to get mixed up in your research!

    Here are some implements that help you find information for a particular field of interest:

    Statistics, reports, maps, history, and other information about 267 countries.

    Peak: Many schools have online topic pages, where the school’s librarians have grouped together helpful resources dedicated to a particular topic like chemistry, history, or religious studies. The LibGuides at Rice University is one example.

    1) A note on large search engines (Google, Bing, and Yahoo)


  • Use Google when you are doing preliminary research or looking for a particular source
  • In other cases, you’re very likely better off using a more academically-oriented source.
  • As far as research is worried, Google is a double-edged sword. (The pros/cons of Google apply to other major search engines such as Bing and Yahoo as well.)

    Very first, the benefits of Google’s search engine: It’s quick and provides you with a lot of information.

    But the list of negatives is weighty:

    Many of Google’s search results are biased and non-academic.

    Several of the websites that show up in Google’s results are written by businessmen who are attempting to sell you something. They aren’t interested in presenting you with unbiased data.

  • Google’s search results are tailored to you

    (based on your past browsing history, your location, the sites you’ve visited previously, etc.). The problem with this individualization of search results is that Google is not providing you with the best information, it’s providing you what it thinks you’ll click on. Those may be two separate things.

  • Google’s results are focused on information available on the internet space that is lightly accessed.

    There is a large amount of excellent information available on the «invisible web» that Google cannot find. The invisible web consists of sites that are not linked to externally, which makes them hidden from Google’s searching and indexing software.

    For these reasons, we have a duo of reservations about using Google’s search engine for research purposes. To help, we’ve drafted a duo general rules about when and when not to use Google.

    Use Google’s search engine…

  • When you’re doing preliminary research (assessing the depth and breadth of your topic).
  • When you know of a specific source, and you just need to find it on the Internet.
  • Attempt using another resource other than Google’s search engine…

  • When you want to find an academic article.
  • When you’re looking for a primary source.
  • When you’re looking for a technical paper.
  • Two) A note on Wikipedia


  • Information on Wikipedia can be edited by anyone-not necessarily an experienced.
  • Use Wikipedia as a kicking off point for your research.
  • Check Wikipedia’s references at the bottom of the page. Those sources are more likely to be credible than Wikipedia itself.
  • LINKS:

    Like Google’s search engine, Wikipedia is a mixed bag. It provides a superb deal of relevant information in a very swift manner, but that information is not necessarily credible. Content on Wikipedia can be edited by anyone-not necessarily an experienced or credible author.

    The editors at Wikipedia have come a long way in policing the site for bad posts and flagging items without citations; but you should always be suspect of information on the site because of its public nature.

    Therefore, Wikipedia is best used at the commence of your research to help you get a sense of the breadth and depth of your topic. It should never be cited in an academic paper.

    Another reason why Wikipedia should not be cited in an academic research paper is that it aims to be like an encyclopedia-a source of reference information, not scholarly research or primary or secondary sources. One must delineate inbetween general reference for general skill and scholarly sources for in-depth skill and research. Facts from reputable encyclopedias or similar sources can be used to supplement a paper, but keep in mind that these sources won’t contain any tasty analysis or scholarly probe.

    Perhaps the most useful part of a Wikipedia page is the «References» section at the bottom, which contains links to relevant sites that are often more credible than the Wikipedia page itself. Use a discerning eye when viewing these citations and apply the best practices of evaluating credible information (see «Evaluating sources for credibility»).

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