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German government creates 1000 tenure-track positions for youthful researchers

German government creates 1000 tenure-track positions for youthful researchers

The German government has signed an agreement to fund 1000 fresh tenure-track positions in an attempt to improve the job situation in the country. This announcement, made on June 16 by President Angela Merkel, reflects the federal government’s efforts to retain youthful talent within the country.

Germany is one of the leading nations in science and research, but there is a dearth of permanent academic positions in the country. About 28,000 PhD and medical students graduate from German universities every year, but only some of them manage to get employed as professors. Moreover, the universities in Germany hire a limited number of permanent professors, which compels many youthful researchers to take up improvised positions. By the time they become eligible to secure a permanent post, they are in their 40s and find it difficult to carve a strong career path for themselves.

According to the agreement, which will last from 2017 to 2032, the federal government will fund a professor’s position for the very first six years. It will extend the support for up to two more years for those who earn tenure. However, after this time framework, the state-funded universities will need to take on the financial responsibility. Since the agreement fund will mainly cover the costs of the salaries, the researchers will have to acquire grants to support their research. The researchers will be hired in two swings in 2017 and 2019, respectively.

This budge by the government has brought hope among the German academics. Christian Schafer at the German Academic Exchange Service said that, “It’s the very first time that the federal government, as far as I know, is investing such a lot of money into the careers of youthfull scientists.” However, some researchers have pointed out that 1000 positions are too few and that the government should create more positions in order to accommodate all the youthfull researchers in the country. Andreea Scacioc, a structural biologist in Gottingen, mentions that the pact does not reserve a quota for women, and this could lead to a disproportionate hiring ratio inbetween masculine and female researchers.

While the federal government has taken steps to support academia, universities will have to join in the efforts to bring a positive switch in the current academic landscape in the country.


University jobs: Germany to fund tenure-track posts

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Writing Sociology Papers: How Not to Plagiarize

Writing Sociology Papers: How Not to Plagiarize

By Janis Prince Inniss

This is the time of the semester when lots of papers are due. Are you working on one right now or about to ultimately get embarked? What’s your plan for turning in your paper on time? Will you simply copy all or most of it from some source? Of course, that is plagiarism, and if you’re my student, at a minimum you will receive an F. (Learn more about plagiarism here .)

As I wrote in a previous post. I had my very first practice of a student plagiarizing when I was a instructing assistant. That was a long time ago, before so many of us had computers. Today, the availability of information on the internet makes plagiarism a matter of copy and paste; you may not even need to type the words you’re stealing.

However, if your professor is anything like me, you’ll be sorry that you took this short-cut. I find plagiarism morally reprehensible. Now that’s not a sociological term, but as a writer who takes forever to write one paragraph for any professional reason, the idea that a student would blithely come along, copy my sweat, and paste it into his or her document and then be rewarded with a grade makes my blood boil. As an intellectual, words are all I have. They are my product so if anybody can come along and take them, I’m not left with anything. And that’s what intellectual property is about: wielding the efforts of your intellectual hard work.

Most of my students make declarations like, “I hate writing!”Why do we assign you writing assignments? Simply, because we think you should know how to write. (For response to the question, why write? click here .) Do you think that as a college graduate you should be able to express yourself in writing? Should you be able to write a report for work? How about composing an email to your boss or even your subordinates? Are those goals lofty? Or maybe you think that “everybody” can do those tasks.

Sadly, this is not true. I have had to rewrite elementary letters and memos composed by assistants—who were college graduates. And I receive emails sent by professionals—in a professional context—rife with basic grammar and punctuation errors. I encounter seniors in college who can’t express plain thoughts in writing.

Literacy is our capability to read and write. These are basis abilities that we expect someone with a college degree to wield; you master them with practice. Why would your professor or teacher give you an assignment to copy words? What value is there in that other than typing practice? What would you learn from that exercise? Bear in mind that the same advances in technology that make it lighter for you to cheat, also make it lighter for us to catch you! Turnitin is a website widely used by many university and high school teachers; it checks papers for “originality” by comparing them others in an enormous database. In many cases, I can lightly detect plagiarism just by reading your essay and noticing that the content matches something else I have read.

Tips on avoiding plagiarism

  • Embark your writing early so that you don’t feel so rushed that you are tempted to simply copy another person’s work.
  • Devise a system that makes clear to you when you have copied even a few words from a source. My method is to always put quotes into quotation marks—even in a draft. You’re welcome to use my method: Along with quotation marks around any set of words I copy, I always put a page number. If I’m using more than a duo sources, I also put the name of the author so that I know which of my sources supplied various information. I don’t put this in the correct citation format so my notes may look like this:

“Results indicate that most people choose brown.” P6 Wilson

  • This is significant to do even if you think you’re going to paraphrase the words later on. Note that omitting a word or two is not paraphrasing, and neither is joining two sentences from your source. For example, based on the quote above, neither of the following are paraphrases: “Results indicate that many people choose brown.” Or “Results indicate that people choose brown.”
  • Group projects are fairly common so if you haven’t already, it is likely that you will have one. If your name is on a group project, take responsibility and read the entire paper. In many cases, if you did so you would recognize any plagiarism because—like your professors will—you will notice that the writing is particularly good and includes a vocabulary unlike that of the average student.
  • It’s better to turn in a simply worded original essay that you wrote than it is to plagiarize something more elaborate that is the expression of someone else’s ideas. (Here's a latest example from The Atlantic of what can happen when we are not careful about attributing words to their writer.)

    Posted by W. W. Norton on May Nineteen, 2011 in Janis Prince Inniss

    Writing Sociology Papers: How Not to Plagiarize


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    Press On Announces Research Partnership with GRU

    $Two.Five Million over Five Years

    September Three, 2015

    On Thursday, September Three, 2015, Press On announced a $Two.Five million bounty to establish the Press On Translational Pediatric Oncology Program at the Georgia Cancer Center. This extreme act of generosity and goodwill will prove vital in the Cancer Center’s research and treatment of pediatric cancer, the leading cause of disease death in American children.

    The Press On support for this novel program ensures that researcher and clinician opportunities to explore fresh drug development and treatment options – options that will form future standards of pediatric oncology care.

    Translational research, also known as “bench-to-bedside,” harnesses the skill from basic sciences to produce fresh drugs, devices and treatment options for patients – even the youngest of them.

    Press On and Rising Tide Foundation for Clinical Cancer Research award Grant for $800,000 for a Pediatric Neuroblastoma Trial

    $100,000 from Press On

    June Five, 2015

    Atlanta, GA: The Press On Fund and the Rising Tide Foundation for Clinical Cancer Research (RTFCCR) are pleased to announce their very first collaborative grant in the amount of $800,000 to Children’s Hospital of Los Angeles (CHLA), Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta (CHOA), and the University of Southern California, to initiate the Fresh Approaches to Neuroblastoma Therapy (NANT) consortium’s Precision Clinical Trial.

    The grant will permit Co-Principal Investigators Shahab Asgharadeh, M.D. of CHLA and Kelly Goldsmith, M.D. of CHOA to enrich bone marrow samples from children with relapsed neuroblastoma for the purpose of identifying specific genomic alterations leading to tumor progression and therapy resistance.

    The primary aim of the explore is to identify potentially targetable genetic and immunologic biomarkers in relapsed neuroblastoma.

    The probe will also assess a novel method for enriching tumor cells from bone marrow aspirates to support gene sequencing, which could potentially permit a much larger group of relapsed neuroblastoma patients to access future personalized medicine trials. A corroboration of this methodology could lead to a broader application in other adult or pediatric solid tumors.

    Neuroblastoma is the most common solid tumor of the central jumpy system in children. High-risk neuroblastoma is very lethal and is responsible for 15% of childhood cancer related deaths. The five-year survival rate for high risk neuroblastoma stands at only 30% and recurrent neuroblastoma almost always fatal.

    This grant was made possible by a strategic collaboration inbetween Press On and the Rising Tide Foundation for Clinical Cancer Research in Switzerland. RTFCCR is dedicated to empowering and supporting pioneering scientists and clinical investigators to make critical headway in cancer research. With the cooperation of the CSRA Community Foundation, Press On Strives to leverage its research dollars with other cancer research oriented foundations and non-profits, like Rising Tide, and as evidenced in its Genomic Research Explore with St Jude and Wash U, and its

    The Rising Tide Foundation for Clinical Cancer Research is an entrepreneurial, private non-profit organization established in Switzerland in 2010. It is committed to empowering and collaborating with global research excellence centers and scientists to advance novel strategies and treatments to help cancer patients improve their quality of life and win the fight against cancer. RTFCCR is funding translational and clinical cancer research with the highest potential for near-term patient influence. Press On is a field of interest fund administered by the Community Foundation of the CSRA, which is located in Augusta, GA. Press On was founded by Atlanta residents Stephen and Erin Chance after their son, Patrick, was diagnosed with high risk neuroblastoma. The Chances joined coerces with Tara and Turner Simkins of Augusta when their son, Brennan, was diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia, an enormously deadly form of childhood cancer. Patrick died on his ninth bday after fighting for almost six years. Brennan is alive and doing well after a groundbreaking treatment regimen including four bone marrow transplants.

    The NANT consortium brings together a multidisciplinary team of laboratory and clinical scientists from 14 pediatric hospitals and institutions in the US and Canada with complementary expertise in genetics, biology, immunology, chemistry, pathology, biostatistics, clinical investigations, and imaging all with a single concentrate on finding better treatments for children with high-risk neuroblastoma.

    Press On Funds CAR Probe at CHOP


    January, 2015

    Augusta, GA: Many children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), like Brennan Simkins have cancers that are labeled “incurable” with multi-agent chemotherapy and radiation. Through the collaboration inbetween the Press On Fund and Dr. Richard Aplenc at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP), it is this team’s objective to benefit these children from alternative therapies. Rapid progress has recently been made with adoptive immunotherapy approaches using human T cells engineered with synthetic chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) against tumor antigens for a multiplicity of human cancers. Press On believes that AML should be no exception.

    As evidenced in Brennan’s case, over one-third of children with AML relapse or are resistant to current best available therapies. Relapsed or chemotherapy-resistant AML accounts for more than 50% of childhood leukemia-related deaths. Fresh treatments are needed to prevent relapses and to improve long-term cures. However, drug discovery research for childhood AML has made little progress to date in bringing fresh treatments to the clinic. The Hematologic Malignancies team at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) has recently published tremendous success with a novel T cell immunotherapy called CART19 for children with relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and is working to develop similar treatment approaches for children with AML. In earlier studies, CHOP created a fresh immunotherapy for AML called CART123, which rapidly killed human AML cells in specialized mouse models. However, CART123 treatment also caused serious side effects upon normal blood-forming cells, which could limit its usefulness in treating patients with AML and may require development of alternative approaches. With a $100,000 Press On Dr Richard Aplenc at CHOP will leverage his team’s grant clinical expertise in high-risk pediatric leukemias and their practice with immunotherapy development in the laboratory and in the clinic to conduct these research studies. Their research concentrates on: (1) development and laboratory testing of a fresh CART38 AML immunotherapy that may decrease side effects upon normal blood cells and (Two) identification of other pediatric AML proteins for future targeting with fresh T cell immunotherapies. Results from this work will help improve our understanding of the biology of childhood AML and to develop innovative therapies to advance to the clinic for testing in children with AML who otherwise have no remaining treatment options.

    Pioneering Bone Marrow Transplantation for Neuroblastoma


    January of 2014

    *Note: the original commitment was $450,000 over three years, but two installments totaling $304,193.82 were sufficient to finish the research and no further contributions were required.

    Augusta, GA: The Press On Fund invested $150,00 toward a three year, $450,000, commitment to a pioneering explore that provides an immuno-therapy strategy for relapse-neuroblastoma patients. With this investment, Dr. Wing Leung, and his research team at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, are developing a novel Trio pronged treatment to attack neuroblastoma, an treatment that can be added to current treatment options with relatively little anticipated toxicity. This probe uses Natural Killer ( or NK cells; the NK Cell explore was also funded by Press On) or stem cells from parental donors to treat neuroblastoma. The parental donor, or haplo transplant, is a stem cell transplant protocol similar, but not identical, to the 3rd/4th transplants of Brennan Simkins, which were also pioneered at St. Jude. This probe is now open to include neuroblastoma patients, and is being pursued in the honor of Patrick Chance, Press On’s inspiration in the fight against neuroblastoma. The Press On team believes this investment was appropriately spawned from both the Chance and Simkins families first-hand practice in the fight for their sons.

    MIBG Cancer Therapy Center at Aflac Cancer Center

    (Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta)



    Press On has funded a fresh radiation therapy program at the Aflac Cancer Center of Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta with a $200,000 donation. This funding provided for all construction and material costs of the specialty radiation room, named in honor of Patrick Chance, and other aspects of the MIBG service. There are presently only a petite number of centers around the country who presently suggest MIBG treatment.

    MIBG therapy is a treatment that uses radioiodine labeled metaiodobenzylguanidine (I-131 MIBG) to target certain tumors such as neuroblastoma and pheochromocytoma and produces a much higher dose of radiation directly to the tumor. During this therapy, patients need to be treated in a special lead-lined room that prevents exposure to others. The MIBG therapy service will permit all children in Georgia to be treated in their home state and will permit for the Alflac Cancer Center to serve as a referral center for the southeastern United States.

    Genome Investigate AML 7q deletion (Washington University, St; Louis & St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital)

    $303,420 over Two years


    Next-generation DNA sequencing technology will be used in the St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital – Washington University Pediatric Cancer Genome Project to sequence the genomes of 600 pediatric cancer patients. The Press On Fund has committed to a two year, $200,000 funding for the sequencing of the infrequent subtype of AML, called AML 7q deletion (which is Brennan Simkins specific subtype of leukemia)

    As part of the fresh project, DNA will be isolated from both the cancer cells and a normal, healthy tissue sample from the same patient. The healthy cells give the scientists a reference DNA sequence to which they can compare genetic alterations in the patient’s tumor cells. The scientists look for genetic differences in a patient’s cancer genome compared with his or her normal genome.

    Typically, hundreds of mutations may be linked to the cancer, but the challenge for researchers is to sift through massive amounts of genetic data to distinguish the dozen or so “driver” mutations—those that are thought to initiate and contribute to tumor growth—from the “passenger” mutations, which are random, background mutations that are not relevant to the disease.

    The advantage of the whole-genome treatment is that scientists can budge beyond a list of genes that have been previously associated with cancer to explore the entire genome and find meaningful cancer-causing mutations. Such a project holds enormous potential for improving the diagnosis and treatment of childhood cancers.

    NK Cell Examine (St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital)


    In 2011, The Press On Fund dedicated $100,000 in seed monies to help initiate and secure the pilot explore of Natural Killer Cell infusions for leukemia at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital. This protocol particularly provides fresh hope to children with relapse AML (like Brennan Simkins), who historically have experienced one of the lowest survival rates of all pediatric cancers. This investigate will determine how long these NK cells work and get through in participants and will glean skill about the effectiveness of expanded use of NK cells against this disease. Dr. David Shook of St. Jude is the primary research physician leading this investigate, who had been one of Brennan’s caregivers during transplants Two, Three & Four at St. Jude.

    MABG (Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia)



    Neuroblastoma is known to be sensitive to radiation, thus our funding of the MIBG service at CHOA. However, MIBG does not target isolated tumor cells. Thus, researchers at Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia and the University of Pennsylvania are designing MABG, which is specifically intended to target disseminated disease.

    Press On funded this research and development effort with a $50,000 grant. There has been significant progress towards the two specific aims of the project: 1) synthesizing high specific activity and Two) successfully creating a preclinical mouse model to probe in vivo biodistribution and therapeutic trials.

    Press On has received a grant request to further this project with the intent of applying for an NIH grant.

    LMO1 (Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia)

    Researchers at CHOP have discovered that a specific oncogene, LMO1, is associated with the most aggressive forms of Neuroblastoma. Press On funded research with a $50,000 grant to define the mechanism by which LMO1 drives Neuroblastoma progression. Additionally, in collaboration with researchers at Harvard, CHOP has developed a transgenic model of Neuroblastoma based on LMO1 overexpression. Third, the Press On grant permitted researchers to define the frequency of Neuroblastoma patients impacted by LMO1 gene mutation.

    The development of this model permits for the manipulation of pathways and surveying for druggable targets that are upregulated by LMO1. Several potential targets are already identified as candidates. This genetic treatment will set a fresh paradigm for targeted treatments of human cancers.

    Based on this work, Dr. Maris at CHOP and Dr. Look at Harvard submitted a fresh multi PI-RO1 application for NIH funding. Despite enthusiasm from the peer review committee and an outstanding score, the grant was not funded dues to a scarcity of funds available for childhood cancer research. Because of this, Press On has received a grant request for bridge funding to proceed the remarkable work.

    PI3 Kinase Inhibitor (Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta)



    Press On has initiated over $200,000 to Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta for Dr. Donald Durden’s research of a novel PI3 Kinase Inhibitor and Targeted Therapies for neuroblastoma.

    Immunotherapy:Hu3F8, Turbo3F8, and a fresh Bi-Specific Neuroblastoma Anti-Body (Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Fresh York)

    $20,000 from Press On

    The Press On Fund recently partnered with the Band of Parents, The Isabella Santos Foundation, Arms Broad Open Foundation & Brooke’s Blossoming Home for Childhood Cancer Foundation (Fucking partners) in committing $Two,000,000 to Dr. Nai-King Cheung at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) for the development, manufacturing, and clinical testing of a fresh bisexual specific anti-body for the treatment of Neuroblastoma. This fresh antibody links to Neuroblastoma cells as well as T cells, thereby causing a much better tumor kill. Earlier iterations of the monoclonal antibody 3F8 relied upon the immune response from NK cells while T cells sat on the sidelines because they did not recognize Neuroblastoma as the enemy.

    Press On’s collaboration with these other parent driven organizations creates the chance to expedite the development and testing of this significant discovery. Unlike other monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of Neuroblastoma, the possibility exists that this bi-specific antibody will be near painless, capable of home administration, and could be used indefinitely for maintenance.

    Press On’s partnership with these organizations, Dr. Cheung, and MSKCC has been in place for years. Press On funded the development and research of Hu3F8, which is now in the clinic at MSKCC, and “Turbo 3F8.” During the work on Turbo 3F8 the bi-specific antibody was developed and is so promising that it has been moved up front so that we can treat kids as soon as possible with this less toxic, more effective immunotherapy.

    Monoclonal antibodies fasten to Neuroblastoma cells and signal a child’s immune system to attack and kill neuroblastoma. Since very first used in 1987, 3F8 treatment has greatly improved survival without lasting side effects.

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    The list of 8 Famous American and World-known essay writers of the 20th century

    The list of 8 Famous American and World-known essay writers of the 20th century

    They say that there are the writers a separate universe in which they can produce, create their work. An ordinary person is not given the chance to know the deep writer’s life, but even every day we see a fresh crowd of people who stand in line for a fresh book. Everyone expects a miracle, take a fresh book with the hope that something wonderful, inexplicably beautiful, willing to drown in a entirely different world, a world of fantasies and wishes, which shows up to the reader in the next bought book in the various forms: essays, novels, stories, poem.

    Today we are going to talk about the best essay writers. ESSAY (fran. Essai) it is the literary form of petite prose text, which express emphasize the author’s individuality. In ease, to the story, the writer’s essay’s facility is to communicate or interpret, but not ever a picture or a histrionic retelling of any life position. The work reaches its purpose through the outright copyright approvals, which do not take the perpetration of no one fictional personage or the plot of a binder. Nevertheless, there is not any hardly absolute difference inbetween different types of essays and brief stories. The main essay’s feature is its brevity, it usually takes from ten up to twenty pages.

    There are a excellent amount of interesting, fascinating works, essays, literary works, which were written by the good world famous authors and writers. More than three centuries ago, the very first essay was published at very first. Now, we can find a lot of essays in libraries or have an effortless possibility to order by the Internet miscellanea of works written by well-known authors from all the world from different centuries. Ever since ancient times, essays were published in magazines, books, were grouped by theme, genre, years, and the authors. Details included a diversity of genres, among which are comedy, non-fiction, romance, instructive, historical facts, life stories, and current events. There are many authors and essay, which detailed list you can read here, and it was difficult to identify the most significant and well-known essayists of all time.

    The list, about which I have mentioned earlier, includes writers from different backgrounds and periods of history. Some of they are still presently continuing to write. Because this fact, it is nothing surprising in the fact that essay remains a popular literary format. And the authors, who can quickly, shortly, concisely and interesting tell the story will always be on top. selected essayists, but not essays. Because, the best essays are only individual, authorial and deep engaged with author’s issues, internal feelings and ideas.

    James Baldwin (1924-1987)

    Baldwin grew up in a family of his stepfather, a priest, where he was the eldest of nine children. His own father, Baldwin have never known and was very suffered from that, which was reflected in some of his works (“Tell me when the train left”, “Go Tell it on the Mountain”, “Giovanni’s Room” and others. After Bronx high school graduating, Baldwin moved to Greenwich Village, where he began his literary career.

    Greenwich Village has always been considered one of the most abandoned Fresh York areas, caused a wave of optimism in Baldwin’s source, who began to write about his views and understandings of what is happening around him. His very first journalistic articles, essays were imbued with the spirit of racism denial which was prevailing in America at that times. That negative attitude makes youthful writer budge Paris.

    Baldwin felt like he caught a breath of fresh air in France, have been saving there from the racist and homophobic America of 40-th. XX century. His main works were written on the banks of the Seine, and there Baldwin have spent the most of his life, producing his creations among which are next well-known essays:

    • James Baldwin and his popular essays published in 1956 “Notes of a Native Son” essays;
    • James Baldwin and his book of interesting essays named “The Demon Finds Work” which was introduced to the mass in 1976;
    • James Baldwin and hisThe Evidence of Things Not Seen(essays; 1985);
    • James Baldwin and his list of essays created in the romantic atmosphere of 85th with the strange name “The Price of the Ticket”;

    Norman Mailer (1923-2007)

    Norman Mailer was born in Fresh Jersey in the Jewish immigrants family. He was the very first child in the family, and after him, there was also two children – a brother and sister. Norman grew up in Fresh York, and in 1939 determined to become a student of Harvard university, where he have fallen in love with literary activity. His very first story was published at the age of Legal, in 1941. The University of Harvard received youthful author the university magazine award. Among the entire set of his works we would like to highlight the most famous essays:

  • Norman Mailer and his Fresh York book of essays called in the world as “The Presidential Papers” ;
  • Norman Mailer and his 2nd Fresh York creation which is known by the noisy name “Cannibals and Christians” ;
  • Norman Mailer and his “Lumps and Pontifications” in which the author opens the deep world of Little Boston’s Life.
  • Susan Sontag (1933-2004)

    Susan Sontag was born in Fresh York, 16 January 1933 year. Since her childhood, the friends of hers were always only booked. In 1952 Sontag’s family have moved to Boston where Sontag passed entry exams to Harvard University. There youthful writer studied English literature and received a Master of Philosophy in 1954. While have been studying at Oxford in 1955-1957, she has faced with the sexism challenge, and because of this soon moved to Paris. From that time she was actively engaged in the French cinema, philosophy and wrote a lot. Among her essay collection we can emphasize the nest ones: “Against Interpretation”, “Where the Stress Falls”, “Regarding the Agony of Others Styles of Radical Will”.

    Joan Didion (1934-present)

    Joan Didion was born and grew up in Sacramento, California. She was just a five-year-old little female when she have begun to write her very first string. She read everything she could get into her mitts while the parents were not home. In 1956, she graduated from the University of Berkeley and got their Bachelor Degree in Arts and English language. Within her senior years, Joan won the very first place in an essay writing inworld-known Vogue magazine. She created own very first work which was named “Run” and issued in 1963 has been working there in Vogue. Among her essays work we want to mention the next ones:

  • Joan Didion and her “Joan Didion” essays works;
  • Joan Didion and her “Salvador” ;
  • Joan Didion and her essays about Earth planet called “After Henry” (twelve geographical essays);
  • Annie Dillard (1945-present)

    Annie Dillard was born in 1945 and is already alive to present us a lot of her magnificent works. Anni is an American author. She was always well-known for her clear story prose in both nonfiction/fiction, poetry, essays, literary criticism and etc. Among her essays Edusson want to emphasize the next ones:

  • Education stone ”, the book of brief nonfiction essays;
  • Life on the rocks, the book of 14 essays: Total Eclipse, In the Jungle, The Deer at Providencia, A Field of Muffle, On a Hill Far Away, God in the Doorway, Mirage’s, Aces and Eights);
  • Robert Atwan was born in 1940, November Two, in Fresh Jersey. He graduated from Two universities: Seton Hall and Rutgers. He is known as one of the best American essay writers. Among the entire set of his works we highlighted the most famous ones:

  • “Good Moments in Literary Baseball”. on thebasisof the very first game of the season;
  • “Poems and Essays”. essays about Autumn and Winter (Snowy essays);
  • Edward Hoagland (1932- present)

    Edward Hoagland is an American writer, who was born in 1932, in Fresh York. Since his childhood, he was fond of writing, literature and from that time, he determined to become a novelist, essayist. He has a gigantic number of essays, the entire list of which you can find here, and we will mention in our article just a little part of it:

  • “The Big Cats”. written in 1961;
  • “Why this Extra Violence” in April;
  • “The Soul of the Tiger” written when he has fallen in love for the very first time;
  • “Big Frog, Very Petite Pond”. unknown data;
  • “A World Worth Saving and Christmas Observed”. written in 1989;
  • “Two Kinds of People” which was published just in Europe;
  • “Last Call”. 2010, a very interesting one;
  • “On Friendship”. which he wrote in 2013, when he was already a deep old man.
  • David Foster Wallace (1962-2008)

    David Foster Wallace was born in 1968 in the USA.He has graduated the little-known college, where he studied philosophy, there got a degree in English language and literature. For many years, he experienced severe bouts of depression.
    in June 2007, according to the doctor recommendations David stopped taking medication. Depression particularly enhanced In the last months of his life. On September 12, 2008, he committed suicide.There some of this essays:

  • David Foster and his essay “Television and U.S. Fiction”. (an interesting and comic essays book);
  • David Foster and his essays book named “Derivative Sport in Tornado Alley” ;
  • David Foster and his “A Supposedly Joy Thing I’ll Never Do Again” and “Consider the Lobster”. which were both published in 2005;
  • David Foster and his “Both Skin and Not” unknown date of publication.
  • So we see, that the concept “essay” goes beyond the plain students essays writing in college. The best and well-known writers from all over the world created a lot of essays to share with readers their ideas and feelings. Proceed to read and probe the world of famous essay writers, and perhaps, in one day you will have the chance to become a popular essayist too.

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    • Find credible sources using contraptions that are designed to find the types of sources you need.


    Here are some fantastic resources and tips on how to use them to their fullest extent:

    Librarian/Digital Media Specialist/Teacher

    – Tell one of these people your research topic and ask them to point you towards useful sources. Chances are that they know more about what’s available about your particular topic than you do. Depending on the size of your school, you may have a subject area librarian for the particular type of research you are doing. Some universities, for example, have specialist librarians for topics like music, art, and humanities.

    Peak: When asking your librarian or teacher, just be sure to be tactful. Recall: librarians are there to help, but they won’t do all your research for you.

    Academic journals

    – These journals are a good way to find cutting edge research on your topic. Academic journals add credibility and professionalism to a paper. They work well for both humanities and scientific papers. Most schools/universities have a subscription to a large database of academic journals. Some commonly used databases are JSTOR and EBSCO Host. If you don’t know what types of services your school subscribes to, ask your teacher/librarian about them.

    Another superb way to access academic papers is Google Scholar. It is a search device that finds scholarly articles-academic journals, patents, theses, court proceedings, and more. Google Scholar displays how many times an academic chunk of literature was cited, which is a rough numerical indicator of how influential the research was. Google Scholar also has link under each posting to help you find related articles.

    Microsoft has a competitor to Google Scholar that is very similar, Microsoft Academic Search. Microsoft’s implement works particularly well for technical papers in fields such as physics, mathematics, biology, and engineering.


    – Books are still one of the best ways to find credible information about a source. Some fields such as the humanities choose their students use books for sources rather than websites, since books typically contain more detailed information (and perhaps more in-depth thinking) than websites do. Books can be found on your school or public library website. Type in keywords related to your topic in the search field, and see what kinds of literature comes up. Write down the call number of the book so that you can find it within your library. Ask your librarian for help if you’re not sure how your library is organized.

    Google has another service, Google Books, that will help you find books related to your topic. Just type your research topic into the field and Google Books will provide you with a list of relevant books. Once you click on a book you like, Google Books will give you a preview of the book and information related to buying the book or finding it in your library.


    – Websites are sources you should treatment with caution. Some experts publish superb information on the Internet, but there’s a lot of bad information out there as well. The trick is to weed out the unreliable information. The section entitled «Evaluating sources for credibility» is all about that process. Here, we’ll discuss some good resources that will help you find good information.

    Peak: Multipurpose search engines (Google, Bing, and Yahoo) aren’t necessarily attempting to provide you with the best academic results. They help people with a lot of things (shopping, searching for flights, comparing restaurants). You don’t want all of these sorts of results to get mixed up in your research!

    Here are some implements that help you find information for a particular field of interest:

    Statistics, reports, maps, history, and other information about 267 countries.

    Peak: Many schools have online topic pages, where the school’s librarians have grouped together helpful resources dedicated to a particular topic like chemistry, history, or religious studies. The LibGuides at Rice University is one example.

    1) A note on large search engines (Google, Bing, and Yahoo)


  • Use Google when you are doing preliminary research or looking for a particular source
  • In other cases, you’re very likely better off using a more academically-oriented source.
  • As far as research is worried, Google is a double-edged sword. (The pros/cons of Google apply to other major search engines such as Bing and Yahoo as well.)

    Very first, the benefits of Google’s search engine: It’s quick and provides you with a lot of information.

    But the list of negatives is weighty:

    Many of Google’s search results are biased and non-academic.

    Several of the websites that show up in Google’s results are written by businessmen who are attempting to sell you something. They aren’t interested in presenting you with unbiased data.

  • Google’s search results are tailored to you

    (based on your past browsing history, your location, the sites you’ve visited previously, etc.). The problem with this individualization of search results is that Google is not providing you with the best information, it’s providing you what it thinks you’ll click on. Those may be two separate things.

  • Google’s results are focused on information available on the internet space that is lightly accessed.

    There is a large amount of excellent information available on the «invisible web» that Google cannot find. The invisible web consists of sites that are not linked to externally, which makes them hidden from Google’s searching and indexing software.

    For these reasons, we have a duo of reservations about using Google’s search engine for research purposes. To help, we’ve drafted a duo general rules about when and when not to use Google.

    Use Google’s search engine…

  • When you’re doing preliminary research (assessing the depth and breadth of your topic).
  • When you know of a specific source, and you just need to find it on the Internet.
  • Attempt using another resource other than Google’s search engine…

  • When you want to find an academic article.
  • When you’re looking for a primary source.
  • When you’re looking for a technical paper.
  • Two) A note on Wikipedia


  • Information on Wikipedia can be edited by anyone-not necessarily an experienced.
  • Use Wikipedia as a kicking off point for your research.
  • Check Wikipedia’s references at the bottom of the page. Those sources are more likely to be credible than Wikipedia itself.
  • LINKS:

    Like Google’s search engine, Wikipedia is a mixed bag. It provides a superb deal of relevant information in a very swift manner, but that information is not necessarily credible. Content on Wikipedia can be edited by anyone-not necessarily an experienced or credible author.

    The editors at Wikipedia have come a long way in policing the site for bad posts and flagging items without citations; but you should always be suspect of information on the site because of its public nature.

    Therefore, Wikipedia is best used at the commence of your research to help you get a sense of the breadth and depth of your topic. It should never be cited in an academic paper.

    Another reason why Wikipedia should not be cited in an academic research paper is that it aims to be like an encyclopedia-a source of reference information, not scholarly research or primary or secondary sources. One must delineate inbetween general reference for general skill and scholarly sources for in-depth skill and research. Facts from reputable encyclopedias or similar sources can be used to supplement a paper, but keep in mind that these sources won’t contain any tasty analysis or scholarly probe.

    Perhaps the most useful part of a Wikipedia page is the «References» section at the bottom, which contains links to relevant sites that are often more credible than the Wikipedia page itself. Use a discerning eye when viewing these citations and apply the best practices of evaluating credible information (see «Evaluating sources for credibility»).

    Proceed to Off-The-Wall Sources>>

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