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Science across boundaries and international differences inbetween authors

Science across boundaries and international differences inbetween authors

Dr. Helle Goldman is the Chief Editor of Polar Research, the international, multi-disciplinary, peer-reviewed journal of the Norwegian Polar Institute (NPI). In this segment of a x-part interview series, Dr. Goldman provides an insightful view about science across boundaries and differences inbetween authors from different parts of the world. While discussing the varying quality of manuscripts and how authors can enhance their writing, she also sheds light on why submissions from some regions are more challenging to work with than others. In the other segments of her interview, she shares her views regarding journal decision making and reliability of peer review and tips for authors on how to select journals to publish in.
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Writing Sociology Papers: How Not to Plagiarize

Writing Sociology Papers: How Not to Plagiarize

By Janis Prince Inniss

This is the time of the semester when lots of papers are due. Are you working on one right now or about to ultimately get embarked? What’s your plan for turning in your paper on time? Will you simply copy all or most of it from some source? Of course, that is plagiarism, and if you’re my student, at a minimum you will receive an F. (Learn more about plagiarism here .)

As I wrote in a previous post. I had my very first practice of a student plagiarizing when I was a instructing assistant. That was a long time ago, before so many of us had computers. Today, the availability of information on the internet makes plagiarism a matter of copy and paste; you may not even need to type the words you’re stealing.

However, if your professor is anything like me, you’ll be sorry that you took this short-cut. I find plagiarism morally reprehensible. Now that’s not a sociological term, but as a writer who takes forever to write one paragraph for any professional reason, the idea that a student would blithely come along, copy my sweat, and paste it into his or her document and then be rewarded with a grade makes my blood boil. As an intellectual, words are all I have. They are my product so if anybody can come along and take them, I’m not left with anything. And that’s what intellectual property is about: wielding the efforts of your intellectual hard work.

Most of my students make declarations like, “I hate writing!”Why do we assign you writing assignments? Simply, because we think you should know how to write. (For response to the question, why write? click here .) Do you think that as a college graduate you should be able to express yourself in writing? Should you be able to write a report for work? How about composing an email to your boss or even your subordinates? Are those goals lofty? Or maybe you think that “everybody” can do those tasks.

Sadly, this is not true. I have had to rewrite elementary letters and memos composed by assistants—who were college graduates. And I receive emails sent by professionals—in a professional context—rife with basic grammar and punctuation errors. I encounter seniors in college who can’t express plain thoughts in writing.

Literacy is our capability to read and write. These are basis abilities that we expect someone with a college degree to wield; you master them with practice. Why would your professor or teacher give you an assignment to copy words? What value is there in that other than typing practice? What would you learn from that exercise? Bear in mind that the same advances in technology that make it lighter for you to cheat, also make it lighter for us to catch you! Turnitin is a website widely used by many university and high school teachers; it checks papers for “originality” by comparing them others in an enormous database. In many cases, I can lightly detect plagiarism just by reading your essay and noticing that the content matches something else I have read.

Tips on avoiding plagiarism

  • Embark your writing early so that you don’t feel so rushed that you are tempted to simply copy another person’s work.
  • Devise a system that makes clear to you when you have copied even a few words from a source. My method is to always put quotes into quotation marks—even in a draft. You’re welcome to use my method: Along with quotation marks around any set of words I copy, I always put a page number. If I’m using more than a duo sources, I also put the name of the author so that I know which of my sources supplied various information. I don’t put this in the correct citation format so my notes may look like this:

“Results indicate that most people choose brown.” P6 Wilson

  • This is significant to do even if you think you’re going to paraphrase the words later on. Note that omitting a word or two is not paraphrasing, and neither is joining two sentences from your source. For example, based on the quote above, neither of the following are paraphrases: “Results indicate that many people choose brown.” Or “Results indicate that people choose brown.”
  • Group projects are fairly common so if you haven’t already, it is likely that you will have one. If your name is on a group project, take responsibility and read the entire paper. In many cases, if you did so you would recognize any plagiarism because—like your professors will—you will notice that the writing is particularly good and includes a vocabulary unlike that of the average student.
  • It’s better to turn in a simply worded original essay that you wrote than it is to plagiarize something more elaborate that is the expression of someone else’s ideas. (Here's a latest example from The Atlantic of what can happen when we are not careful about attributing words to their writer.)

    Posted by W. W. Norton on May Nineteen, 2011 in Janis Prince Inniss

    Writing Sociology Papers: How Not to Plagiarize

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    How to Write a Political Science Research Paper

    How to Write a Political Science Research Paper

    I. Choose a paper topic

    1. Find an event or topic related to this course that interests you.
  • Investigate the library’s resources and other available resources. If you choose to investigate a topic for which you must rely intensely on inter-library loans, you may not receive enough material in time to accomplish your research. You need to find an area in which there is available material. If you find there is not enough material on your topic, choose a different topic and begin a fresh search to see if you can successfully finish the research for your paper on your fresh topic.
  • Read generally in the topic area of your choice.
  • Style a precise question that you wish to research. The question that you ask is your research question. The aim of your research paper is to provide an reaction to your research question. NOTE. To be a question, your research question must end with a question mark.
  • Your question might be something like: Under what conditions will x occur? What are the causes of x? What are the consequences of x and y? How did x alter the outcome of y? You want to avoid asking self evident questions such as, “Will war in country x contort development?” Obviously war affects a country’s development and you do not need to do research to persuade the reader of this. Also, such a question is too broad for a focused research paper. “Development” is too encompassing a concept. You could not in a single paper analyze all of the effects of war on the development of an entire country.

    II. Develop a research design

  • To do this you must think through what you need to know in order to response your research question. What specific data would be helpful in answering your question? Which actors are involved? What outer and/or domestic events might affect the topic you are studying? Where will you get the data you need?
  • III. Develop a thesis

  • You must suggest a thesis in the introduction of your paper. After researching your material, you will response your research question. The response to your research question will form the basis of your thesis. The thesis is the argument that you will make in your paper. Presenting your reaction to the research question is the reason why you write the paper. You write the paper to coax your reader that your reaction is correct. You must provide the reader with evidence you discovered in your research to persuade the reader that your response is correct. You must anticipate alternative answers to your question and refute them. You must explain why your reaction is better.
  • Note that if you announce to your reader in your introduction that you “propose to explore” your topic, you admit that you have not thought long and hard enough about your topic to make a statement or suggest an argument about some aspect of the topic. If you are still “exploring your topic” when you are writing your paper and you cannot even form a question and suggest and response – you will be graded accordingly.
  • IV. Make decent citations for all data used in the paper. All papers must have references

    and a bibliography.

  • Go after the citation style used in the American Political Science Review. (The APSR is the preeminent journal for political scientists.) You can find hard copies of the APSR in the periodicals section of the Bailey-Howe library (on the 2nd floor). You can find electronic copies of the journal by going to the library webpage http://sageunix.uvm.edu/Collections/ then select “General Reference” then select “Journals and Magazines” then select “JSTOR” then come in JSTOR and select “browse the journal” then select “political science” then select “American Political Science Review” then choose a volume and an issue and finally… select “view article”. Alternatively, you can go after the style of footnotes introduced in the Chicago Manual of Style http://www.wisc.edu/writetest/Handbook/DocChicago.html .
  • You will see that the APSR uses parenthetical references to the author and the date in the assets of the text. Then the finish citation for each reference is listed in alphabetical order in the bibliography.
  • Plagiarized papers will be reported to the Committee on Academic Honesty. Below you will find an example of plagiarism that you must not repeat.
  • General X believed that … (no footnote or parenthetical reference).
  • If you have interviewed General X, you must footnote the date and place of your interview. If you have not personally interviewed General X, then the only way that you can know what he believed is from reading someone else’s work. You may not take credit for the work someone else did. You must cite your source.
  • If, however, you think General X should have thought that, or most likely thought that, but you have no evidence and no sources, you may not write such a statement in a scholarly paper. In this case, no one cares what you think General X should have thought. Your assertion that the General thought something without suggesting any evidence is merely a figment of your imagination. Do not attempt to suggest that figments of your imagination are the result of scholarly research.
  • You cannot submit a “paper” that is merely a string of quotes from various sources. When you write a paper, your thesis (the argument you make to response your research question) should reflect your own (original) thinking. You should arrive at your thesis as a result of piecing together the evidence/data you have compiled. You must do the work for your paper. You must evaluate, analyze, and suggest judgments on the evidence you suggest – and your evaluations must be based on the accumulated evidence, not wishful thinking.
  • Your sources must be varied. Reading several Internet pages does not constitute careful, scholarly research. Your research sources should include scholarly, journalistic, and primary materials.
  • Scholarly sources include books and journal articles. You can search for books related to your topic on Voyager at http://voyager.uvm.edu/. Only reading books, however, is not good enough. Books often take much longer than journal articles to publish and therefore the information found in books is frequently less current than the information found in journal articles. The best way to find journal articles is through “ArticleFirst”. To access “ArticleFirst” go to the library webpage http://sageunix.uvm.edu/Collections/ then select “General Reference” then select “Journals and Magazines” then select “ArticleFirst”. Then search for journal articles related to your research question.
  • Journalistic sources include the LADB, newspapers, and magazines. Newspapers such as the Fresh York Times, The Wall Street Journal, The Christian Science Monitor, The Economist are all good sources for international news. If you can read the language of the country you are studying, then consult the major newspapers from that country on the Internet.
  • Primary materials include official documents, government hearings, treaties, State Department bulletins, speeches, memoirs, interviews, World Bank and International Monetary Fund statistics, government statistics. A good source for Statisctical data on Latin America is The Statistical Abstract of Latin America available in the reference section of the Bailey/Howe Library call number HA935.S79. Also check out the World Development Indicators (available on Sage under “Find Articles and More” then “Alphabetical List of Databases” *NOTE: you must be in the library to access this database).
  • The reference librarians are a good resource and you should consult them for questions about sources.
  • V. Write the paper

  • Proofread the paper. Rewrite the paper. Ask your roomie to proofread the paper. Rewrite the paper again. Ask your mom to proofread the paper. Rewrite it again. The more times you proofread and rewrite the paper, the better the paper will be and the higher your grade will be.
  • Reminisce, for your paper, you need to add something to the work of other authors, you should not just repeat someone else’s thesis.
  • Organize your paper in the following way:
  • Introduction. Begin the paper by identifying your research question. Then explain why your question is significant. Suggest your thesis – a quick version of your reaction to the research question (one or two sentences).
  • Literature Review. Discuss the existing scholarly literature that relates to your question and explain why the existing literature does not adequately address the question you pose, thus telling the reader why your research had to be conducted and why your paper must be read if the reader is interested in the response to your significant question.
  • Data. Present your evidence so that it supports your thesis (that is the reaction to your research question)
  • Conclusion. Summarize your findings and restate your thesis, which answers your research question. Do not add fresh information in the conclusion – all evidence should be in the Data section.
  • You may not write “this year …” or “this week…” You must specify particular dates. A reader should understand your time framework whatever date they happen to read your paper.
  • * To write a sophisticated paper, you should conduct your research in light of the significant theories of political science. You might ask a question and suggest an response that either confirms or disconfirms a theory in the discipline. You might research a question and detect that there does not exist any good theory in the field to suggest insight into your research question. In this case, you might analyze the existing literature and explain how your research offers a hypothesis to explain why some phenomena occur.

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    Reliable and Affordable Best Essay Writing Service

    Reliable and Affordable Best Essay Writing Service

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    WritingFix’s Six by Six Guide

    WritingFix’s Six by Six Guide

    About the Author:

    Jodie Black is a full-time kindergartner teacher in Northern Nevada. She became a Teacher Consultant for the Northern Nevada Writing Project in 1990, served as its Co-director inbetween 2001-2006, and has been involved with dozens of the NNWP’s professional development projects focused on writing instruction. One of Jodie’s beloved NNWP projects was when she served as coordinator of the Six by Six Guide: Trait Writing with Primary Writers.

    Unit Two:

    About Me,
    About Mine!
    Embarking to write little books about ourselves and the people we love.

    This unit was created by Jodie Black, who uses it during October with her kindergartners.

    In her “Puny Moments: Private Narrative Writing,” (part of the “Units of Explore for Primary Writing: A Yearlong Curriculum ”) Lucy Calkins does a brilliant job of introducing private narrative writing to primary students. For this unit in my classroom, I made some major modifications to make narrative writing more lightly accessible just for kindergartners.

    Welcome to my 2nd on-line unit for a Kindergarten Writers Workshop. If you haven’t read unit one yet, you may want to embark there.

    At the begin of Unit Two. I give the children their writing folders (see 9 Components of a Kindergarten Writers Workshop ). In addition, I created several graphic organizers (see below) to assist the children in keeping their ideas straight. Moving from blank paper to an organizer is a big step for the children, and for me. I want to give them the naked minimum of a format, so that at all times the intuition of the writer can demonstrate through.

    Lesson 1: If you haven’t formally introduced the children to writing fucking partners (see 9 Components of a Kindergarten Writers Workshop ), now would be the time to do it. I modeled again and again how to use the playmate. Fucking partners assisted each other in three basic ways. 1) Your fucking partner could help you sound out words or help you just spell common words. Two) Your playmate would listen to you read whenever you asked them to. Three) Your fucking partner could make suggestions to you for switches you might need to make.

    Lesson Two: Using the “Petite Moments Planner ” (adapted from Calkins “Many Moments” planner, the transition to writing a story with beginning, middle and end went fairly sleekly. Students used their fucking partners as listeners to tell the story, pointing to each box on the planner. The planner was only for illustrations and the working title. Upon completion of the planner, the students got ONE “Petite Moments Writing Page ” (SMWP) and numbered it. As they finished pages, they helped themselves to the next page. I found nothing worked better for helping the children to manage where they were in the story and where they were going. It wasn’t long before books grew to many more than three pages and eventually the planners were dispensed with altogether.

    Each day as the children got out their writing materials and previous work, it was effortless enough to line up SMWPs, reread them and proceed where they had left off.

    Lesson Three: When I eyed children helping each other in specific ways, I would use their own ideas in my next lesson. For example when Tenaya helped Chloe switch “Mis Fit” doll to “Miss Fit” doll each time it appeared in her story, I highlighted their work in a lesson. By the way, the children didn’t always help each other accurately. Sometimes the act of helping outweighed the precision of the help.

    Lesson Four: If you haven’t introduced the “Snap to Spell” list yet (see Spelling section of the 9 Components of a Kindergarten Writers Workshop ), now would be a good time to do that. In an extra note, as I conferenced with individuals, I might add a word to their list only. If Caulin was going to write a entire book about Legos, he needed to know how to spell that word right. By the end of the year, the StoS list had 28 words on it, some the same as on our Word Wall, but some not.

    Lesson Five: While we continued to do entire class sharing on occasion, once we were writing “Puny Moment” stories we began Author’s Chair (see Sharing section of the 9 Components of a Kindergarten Writers Workshop ).

    The “Puny Story Planner ” became necessary near the end of the year when Mia said, “Can I write a story that I’m not in?” Uhh….yeah…. I had a moment of clarity when I realized how individual individual narratives are. (see Unit 9 for kindergarten work in fiction)

    “A Thicker Story Planner ” and the “Petite Moments Writing Page ” without space for an illustration came in handy in two ways. Very first, more able writers needed a fatter story challenge and some of those same kids, and others as well, got to not wanting to draw any illustrations. I had to respect that, either they weren’t superb illustrators and knew it, or they were such able writers they didn’t want to get bogged down.

    Lessons in inbetween: Via this unit, you must be ready to insert lessons, as you see the children need them, about sounding out words, writing finish sentences, making sure the story makes sense. Above all, the children need time to write. Lots of time, while you stand by ready to assist them in the ways you determine they need the most.

    Student Samples from Jodie’s Classroom
    Unit Two

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    Comprehensive Procurement Guidelines for Paper and Paper Products

    Comprehensive Procurement Guidelines for Paper and Paper Products

    ? Most of these items can be made from a diversity of printing and writing papers, depending on the spectacle characteristics of the item. Some of the papers are a commodity-type and some are specialty papers. EPA recommends that procuring agencies determine the spectacle characteristics required of the paper prior to establishing minimum content standards. Bond, ledger or stationery made from cotton fiber paper or a text & cover paper, for example, have different characteristics than similar items made from commodity papers.

    Recommended Recovered Fiber Content Levels for Glazed Printing and Writing Papers

    Covered Printing Paper

    Recommended Recovered Fiber Content Levels for Bristols

    Total Recovered Fiber (%)

    File Folders (manila and colored)

    Dyed Filing Products

    Cards (index, postal, and other, including index sheets)

    Pressboard Report Covers and Binders

    Tags and Tickets

    Vendors, Researchers and Related Organizations

    To locate vendors, researchers and other organizations about recycled content below, use the tabs below. Click on your matching area of interest for a collection of related links.

    The following links exit the site Exit

    The Report on the Availability of Printing and Writing Papers Listed in the CPG Paper RMAN fulfills the requirement in the implementing instructions of Executive Order 13423, March 29, 2007, for EPA to report to the Federal Environmental Executive on the availability of printing and writing paper with recycled content. This report can serve as a good resources to those looking to buy recycled-content paper.

    Newsprint

    Newsprint is a type of groundwood paper generally used to print newspapers. Recovered-content newsprint is usually manufactured from fiber recovered from old newspapers and magazines. The federal government uses newsprint for printing the Federal Register, Congressional Record, and other publications.

    EPA’s Recovered Materials Advisory Notice (RMAN) recommends that procuring agencies establish minimum content standards voiced as a percentage of recovered fiber, including a percentage of postconsumer fiber. For most grades, EPA recommends postconsumer fiber content. Postconsumer fiber does not include newsstand comebacks or printer’s overruns.

    Recommended Recovered Fiber Content Levels for Newsprint

    Commercial/Industrial Sanitary Tissue

    Sanitary tissue products include bathroom and facial tissue, paper towels, napkins and general-purpose industrial wipers. They are generally sold in rolls or sheets and are used in individual care, food service and cleaning applications. The grades of sanitary tissue products covered in the CPG are manufactured for use by restaurants, hotels, schools, government agencies and other similar commercial and institutional buyers. Some recycled-content sanitary tissue products are softer, stronger and more absorbent than others.

    Recommended Recovered Fiber Content Levels for Commercial/Industrial Sanitary Tissue Products

    Paperboard and Packaging

    The paperboard and packaging category covers two major types of board: “containerboard” used to make corrugated shipping containers, and “paperboard” used in a broad multitude of packaging applications such as folding cartons, blister cards, beverage carriers, book and report covers, mailing tubes, movie cassette boxes and others.

    Containerboard (corrugated board) is actually a composite paperboard made by sandwiching fluted “corrugating medium” in inbetween layers of linerboard. Linerboard, made primarily from both cherry and recovered fiber from old corrugated containers (OCC), is used to make the inward and outer walls of a box. The inwards, fluted medium layer in the middle is made from postconsumer recovered fiber from OCC, old newspapers (ONP), used office paper and mixed papers or cherry fiber.

    Paperboard containing recovered fiber is a multi-ply material, formed in layers of recovered fiber. Often grey in appearance, a white top layer made from recovered office paper is often used to provide a clean printing surface. Paperboard mills use more recovered fiber than any other segment of the paper industry to manufacture a broad multitude of product packaging (folding cartons), beverage carriers, mailing tubes, industrial paperboard (cores, drums, tubes, and cans), and many other items. Kraft padded mailers, Kraft bags, and wrapping paper made from OCC also fall under the packaging category.

    Key Resource

    Recommended Recovered Fiber Content Levels for Paperboard and Packaging Products

    1 The recovered fiber and postconsumer fiber content is calculated from the content of each component relative to the weight each contributes to the total weight of the box.
    Two The recommended content ranges are not applicable to all types of paperboard used in folding cartons. Cartons made from solid bleached sulfate or solid unbleached sulfate contain no or puny percentages of postconsumer fiber, depending on the paperboard source.
    Three Carrierboard made from unbleached kraft contains up to 25 percent recovered fiber, while carrierboard made from recycled paperboard contains up to 100 percent recovered fiber.

    Miscellaneous Paper Products

    Tray liners presently are the only product in the Miscellaneous Paper category. Sometimes referred to as “doilies” or “place mats,” tray liners are specialty paper items designed to line food service trays in institutional and commercial restaurants and cafeterias in schools, hospitals, prisons and private facilities.

    Recommended Recovered Fiber Content Levels for Miscellaneous Paper Products

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