This graph paper handwriting contraption is an effortless way to instruct kids how to place letters with adequate letter spacing, letter size, and line awareness when writing. Attempt using this trick when visual motor integration is a concern or when students have difficulty with legibility in handwriting.
Use graph paper to help with Handwriting Legibility
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Common concerns with handwriting involve overshooting lines, poor placement of letters, and varying size of letter creation. Using graph paper is just part of a ordinary trick to help with each of these areas.
If you missed yesterday’s blog post, you’ll want to read over another idea that encourages development and strengthening of several abilities: using transfer paper to help with letter formation, letter size, line awareness, and pencil pressure.
Both posts are part of our 30 day series on effortless tricks and tips to help with handwriting.
You can find these and many more handwriting ideas in our Sweet Ideas for Handwriting Help Facebook group.
How to use graph paper to help with handwriting:
Use graph paper that is appropriately sized to your child’s handwriting size needs. There are various sizes available:
And even Dot grid squares (for visual prompts without the lines)
Using the appropriately sized grids, use a highlighter to create pyramid style boxes for practising word copying. For each word, create a pyramid of highlighted boxes that stack the letters so the child practices the word with enlargening motor plan effort.
For example, when practising the word “play”, the child would practice “p”, then “pl”, then “pla”, and eventually “play”.
Practising a word in this manner permits the child to shift their vision down to the next line with a visual cue to correct any mistakes that they made in letter formation. It is significant to monitor kids’ work as they begin this activity to make sure they are forming letters correctly and not building on inaccuracies in letter formation or organizational components (size and space of letters).
The grid of the graph paper is a gigantic device in permitting the child to form letters with constrictions on letter size, spacing, and line awareness.
Ultimately, when the child completes the entire word, place a lump of paper under the last highlighted grid. The paper should have normal lines without graph paper type of grids. By placing the paper under the grids, the child can copy the style of writing that they used when writing the entire word. Transferring the spacing, size, and line use to regular paper uses the visual cue of the graph paper with improved accuracy.
It is significant to monitor kids’ use of the homework for you graph paper and writing each letter of the word in repetition. Sometimes, kids will attempt to accomplish an activity like this one fairly quickly in order to “get it over with”. In those cases, letter size, letter spacing, and line awareness can suffer. Attempt to limit the number of words that are practiced with this method.
Other ways to use graph paper to practice handwriting accuracy:
Use this pyramid style of writing to practice spelling words and glance words.
Attempt using graph paper to write written responses to writing prompts.
Use graph paper for writing responses on worksheets.
Use graph paper to help kids who need extra work on margin awareness.
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A clear sense of argument is essential to all forms of academic writing, for writing is thought made visible. Insights and ideas that occur to us when we encounter the raw material of the world—natural phenomena like the behavior of genes, or cultural phenomena, like texts, photographs and artifacts—must be ordered in some way so others can receive them and react in turn. This give and take is at the heart of the scholarly enterprise, and makes possible that vast conversation known as civilization. Like all human ventures, the conventions of the academic essay are both logical and playful. They may vary in expression from discipline to discipline, but any good essay should display us a mind developing a thesis, supporting that thesis with evidence, deftly anticipating protestations or counterarguments, and maintaining the momentum of discovery.
An essay has to have a purpose or motive; the mere existence of an assignment or deadline is not sufficient. When you write an descriptive essay or research paper, you are never simply transferring information from one place to another, or displaying that you have mastered a certain amount of material. That would be exceptionally boring—and besides, it would be adding to the glut of pointless utterance. Instead, you should be attempting to make the best possible case for an original idea you have arrived at after a period of research. Depending upon the field, your research may involve reading and rereading a text, performing an experiment, or cautiously observing an object or behavior.
By immersing yourself in the material, you begin to detect patterns and generate insights, guided by a series of unfolding questions. From a number of possibilities, one idea emerges as the most promising. You attempt to make sure it is original and of some importance; there is no point arguing for something already known, trivial, or widely accepted.
Thesis and Development
The essay’s thesis is the main point you are attempting to make, using the best evidence you can marshal. Your thesis will evolve during the course of writing drafts, but everything that happens in your essay is directed toward establishing its validity. A given assignment may not tell you that you need to come up with a thesis and defend it, but these are the unspoken requirements of any scholarly paper.
Determining upon a thesis can generate considerable anxiety. Students may think, “How can I have a fresh idea about a subject scholars have spent their entire lives exploring? I just read a few books in the last few days, and now I’m supposed to be an experienced?” But you can be original on different scales. We can’t possibly know everything that has been, or is being, thought or written by everyone in the world—even given the vastness and speed of the Internet. What is required is a rigorous, good faith effort to establish originality, given the requests of the assignment and the discipline. It is a good exercise via the writing process to stop periodically and reformulate your thesis as succinctly as possible so someone in another field could understand its meaning as well as its importance. A thesis can be relatively elaborate, but you should be able to distill its essence. This does not mean you have to give the game away right from the begin. Guided by a clear understanding of the point you wish to argue, you can spark your reader’s curiosity by very first asking questions—the very questions that may have guided you in your research—and cautiously building a case for the validity of your idea. Or you can embark with a provocative observation, inviting your audience to go after your own path of discovery.
The Pressure of Argument
Argument implies pressure but not combative fireworks. This pressure comes from the fundamental asymmetry inbetween the one who wishes to persuade and those who must be persuaded. The common ground they share is reason. Your objective is to make a case so that any reasonable person would be wooed of the reasonableness of your thesis. The very first task, even before you commence to write, is gathering and ordering evidence, classifying it by kind and strength. You might determine to budge from the smallest chunk of evidence to the most epic. Or you might begin with the most persuading, then mention other supporting details afterward. You could hold back a surprising chunk of evidence until the very end.
In any case, it is significant to review evidence that could be used against your idea and generate responses to anticipated protestations. This is the crucial concept of counterargument. If nothing can be said against an idea, it is most likely evident or vacuous. (And if too much can be said against it, it’s time for another thesis.) By not indicating an awareness of possible protestations, you might seem to be hiding something, and your argument will be weaker as a consequence. You should also become familiar with the various fallacies that can undermine an argument—the “straw man” fallacy, fallacies of causation and of analogy, etc.—and strive to avoid them.
The Structure of Argument
The heart of the academic essay is persuasion, and the structure of your argument plays a vital role in this. To persuade, you must set the stage, provide a context, and determine how to expose your evidence. Of course, if you are addressing a community of specialists, some aspects of a collective context can be taken for granted. But clarity is always a virtue. The essay’s objective should be described swiftly, by posing a question that will lead to your thesis, or making a thesis statement. There is considerable plasticity about when and where this happens, but within the very first page or two, we should know where we are going, even if some welcome suspense is preserved. In the figure of the paper, merely listing evidence without any discernible logic of presentation is a common mistake. What might suffice in conversation is too informal for an essay. If the point being made is lost in a welter of specifics, the argument falters.
The most common argumentative structure in English prose is deductive: embarking off with a generalization or assertion, and then providing support for it. This pattern can be used to order a paragraph as well as an entire essay. Another possible structure is inductive: facts, instances or observations can be reviewed, and the conclusion to be drawn from them goes after. There is no blueprint for a successful essay; the best ones demonstrate us a focused mind making sense of some manageable aspect of the world, a mind where insightfulness, reason, and clarity are joined.
Copyright 1998, Kathy Duffin, for the Writing Center at Harvard University
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The very first learned language influences the way brain processes other languages
Researchers from McGill University and the Montreal Neurological Institute discovered that the very first language we are exposed to has a lasting influence on the way the brain processes the other languages even when the very first language is no longer spoken. They studied how the children from diverse linguistic backgrounds processed pseudo-French words and used the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to observe the parts of their brains that got activated. It was found that the brains of Chinese children who did not speak their very first language anymore functioned in the same way as the brains of bilingual children. This has led the researchers to believe that early exposure to a language has an effect on the brain’s capability to adapt to fresh language environments to master a fresh language. This finding is likely to enhance the understanding of how the brain adapts to fresh languages, and help in creating educational practices that take into consideration the learning patterns of children belonging to diverse linguistic backgrounds.
Are you writing a paper and don’t know where to begin? Even with a clear prompt, a grab on the material, and lots of ideas, getting began on any paper can be a challenge. All writers face the dilemma of looking at a blank computer screen without having any idea of how to translate their thoughts into a coherent and cautiously articulated essay. You may know all about drafting and editing, but how do you get to that very first draft? What comes inbetween a blank computer screen and that polished final paper anyway?
The response to that final question is fairly elementary. The best and most successful papers always commence with prewriting.
So, what is prewriting anyway?
Good question! Prewriting is a term that describes any kind of preliminary work that precedes the actual paper writing. It doesn’t necessarily have to be writing. In fact, prewriting can just be concentrated thinking about what you want to write your paper on. Various prewriting technics are expanded upon below. However, know that you don’t have to use all of them, nor is any one better than any of the others. Successful prewriting (and paper writing!) occurs when the writer finds what works best for him/her.
What are good prewriting technics?
I’m glad you asked! In the rest of this handout, you’ll find a multitude of useful technics to help you get commenced on pretty much any writing project. If you’re not sure where to begin, just pick one and attempt it out. After you’ve tested a duo, you’ll most likely develop a sense of your most successful prewriting strategies and can choose the mechanisms that best suit your writing and thinking style.
Brainstorming refers to quickly writing down or taking inventory of all your thoughts as swift as they come to you. In this sense, your ideas are like a gigantic storm swirling around in your brain, and it’s your job to get them out of your head. Writing of some kind is very helpful in brainstorming, as it can often be difficult to keep track of all your thoughts and ideas without writing them down. However, your writing does not have to be formal. Many writers simply use bullet points to mark all their ideas; in this sense, brainstorming often looks more like a list, rather than a coherent chunk of writing (which is totally fine at this stage!). When brainstorming, don’t feel pressured to connect, defend, fully articulate, or censor your ideas. If you permit yourself to simply pour out all the thoughts that are in your head, following them wherever they lead, you might come up with a indeed interesting topic, theme, motif, etc. to concentrate your paper on.
Example: Brainstorming for Toni Morrison’s Beloved.
Sethe’s relationship with her children.
Significance of milk and the breast. Possible connection to mother/child relationship.
Familial relationships under slavery. Perhaps Morrison is examining (or complicating) this through Sethe’s extreme relationship with her children. Possible connection to milk and breast imagery. Breastfeeding her children may be so significant because mother/child relationshps are often ruined under slavery.
Motherly love. Sethe seems to think murder can be taken as an act of motherly love. Maybe she’s rewriting the role of the mother under slavery.
Comeback of Beloved and inability to explain/justify murder. Even tho’ Sethe claims that the murder was right, she seems conflicted.
Freewriting is very similar to brainstorming in that it gets all your thoughts out onto paper. However, where brainstorming often looks more like a list of ideas, freewriting usually takes the form of more formal sentences. Even so, grammar, punctuation, and the like should be far from your mind. Like brainstorming, you should go after the flow of your ideas, and you shouldn’t pressure yourself to fully taunt out everything. There’s slew of time for that later! And once again, I want to stress that you SHOULD NOT censor your ideas. You may be quick to discount an idea, but if you give it a chance, it may take you somewhere totally unexpected and enormously productive in terms of writing a successful paper.
Example: Freewriting for Beloved.
I have to write a paper on Beloved for my English class. There’s a lot to write on in this book. When I very first read it, I noticed a lot of things about Sethe and her relationship with her kids. Her motherly relationship with her children seemed significant to her, especially in terms of breastfeeding them. Perhaps this is symbolic of something. Like milk and the breast represent motherhood itself. This might be why it was so significant for Sethe to get milk to her baby; she may have dreamed to retain that motherly bond. Perhaps that’s significant because of the fact that slavery interferes with the mother/child relationship. In slavery, Sethe and her children are just her master’s property, so she’s not the ultimate guardian/holder of them. Maybe breastfeeding is her way of reestablishing the bond that slavery attempts to ruin by making humans into property.
Clustering or Mindmapping
Once again, clustering and mindmapping, like brainstorming and freewriting, permit you to take inventory of your ideas. However, they both concentrate you on a central word (usually something that embodies a theme, topic, motif, etc. that is significant to your ideas), which you then work out from by associating other words, thoughts, and ideas to that central word. These may be very useful technics for enormously visual people. A lot of online diagrams of clustering have the central word in a circle, with all the associated words in their own circles and lines connecting them back to the central word. Similarly, there are very elaborate and decorative examples of mindmaps online. Be as creative as you want—just not at the expense of your ideas themselves! Using these mechanisms permits you to very lightly visualize all the ideas that are in your head.
Example: Clustering for Beloved.
This is one of the best and most useful approaches to get yourself commenced on writing a paper, especially if you truly have no idea where to embark. Here, you write down all the questions that seem relevant to your material. These should certainly be legitimate questions, possibly ones you have yourself. By generating a lot of questions, as well as forcing yourself to contemplate answers to those questions, you’ll get out a lot of the ideas, issues, thoughts, etc. that could potentially get you began on paper writing. Similarly, a lot of excellent essay topics come out of a question. By focusing on a question that is not lightly answered, you’ll have a framework for your argument.
Example: Question-Asking for Beloved.
Why does Morrison concentrate on Sethe’s relationship with her children?
What is the significance of mother/child relationships in Beloved?
Is milk and breastfeeding significant? Why? How does it connect to other themes in the book? Could it be symbolic? If so, what does it symbolize?
How does slavery affect Sethe’s relationshp with her children? Is Morrison addressing this? If so, how?
What does Sethe’s murder of her baby represent? Is it clear by the end of the book? Or is it unresolved? How does it connect to slavery, mother/child relationships, and other themes?
This mechanism is best used as an on-going process. While brainstorming, freewriting, clustering, mindmapping, and question-asking can wait until you have your paper assignment and are thinking about where to begin, journaling is best across your engagement with whatever material you could potentially be writing on. Journaling can involve aspects of all previously mentioned technologies. However, the idea behind it is to write down whatever strikes you about the material when it strikes you. That way, rather than attempting to reminisce your very first impressions and ideas about the material, you’ll have them already conveniently written down. Albeit many ideas that strike us in the moment don’t lead to excellent papers, many of our initial thoughts become the seeds of a successful essay.
Example. Journaling for Beloved.
On page (x), Sethe mentions milk and breastfeeding. This seems indeed significant to her, especially as a mother. Is this a theme Morrison is developing? Possibly the relationship inbetween mothers and children.
On page (x), Morrison describes how Sethe murdered her baby. Why is the detail so vivid? If Sethe’s attempting to argue that she did it out of motherly love, why does Morrison make the murder so graphic? Also, what does slavery have to do with this? Does the fact that Sethe murdered her baby to protect her from slavery justify her deeds?
On page (x), Morrison writes that Sethe is permanently attempting to explain and justify the murder. Elsewhere, Sethe defends it as the right thing to do. Why this conflict? Does this tie into other themes? What is Morrison attempting to say?
Outlining can be enormously helpful for some writers, but utterly limitary for others. Also, it’s difficult to leap into outlining without having done some prelimiary work with one of the other technics. Outlining requires that you have a good sense of your ideas, themes, thoughts, treatment, argument, etc. This is why many writers cannot use outlining; for some, a good sense of what you’re writing about comes through the actual writing process. You may embark off with a sense of what you’ll argue, but often, it switches and molds into a coherent argument as you write the paper. However, if you’re one of those writers who has a clear sense of your argument from the beginning and you want a way to organize your ideas before commencing to write the paper, then outlining is for you!
For outlining, most usually use bullet points to organize how they’ll structure their paper. Beginning with the introduction, lay out your main point/argument. From there, go through each paragraph, highlighting the main idea, evidence, and analysis you’ll be using. Be sure to check that it ties into the previous paragraph, as well as your overall argument. Eventually, sum up your argument in your conclusion, pointing to the larger significance of your essay’s claims.
For those of you who don’t like outlining, but find moving straight into the actual writing process more productive, switch sides outlining can be very useful. This is where you outline your paper after you’ve written it. This is utterly helpful when checking to make sure that all your paragraphs stir logically from one idea to the next, and that they all work to support your larger argument.
Example. Outline for an essay on Beloved.
—Focus on how Morrison highlights the importance of history in terms of slavery and the African American community in her book.
—Thesis: Morrison stresses the necessity of an active communal preservation, retrieval, and even writing of a private history that many have attempted to leave behind, overlook, or make impersonal.
—Topic sentence: In Beloved, Morrison shows the necessity of community and active participation to history’s preservation and retrieval by highlighting the importance of telling one’s individual story to others.
• “They sang it out and hit it up, garbling the words so they could not be understood; tricking the words so their syllables yielded up other meanings” (128).
• Similarly, Sethe is able to retrieve her forgotten history by “telling” Beloved, who has “distance from the events itself,” stories from her past, as Morrison writes, “she was remembering something she had forgotten she knew” (Morrison Sixty-nine, 73).
—Close reading analysis.
—Topic sentence: And Morrison, through the figure of Beloved, who represents not only Sethe’s, but also slavery’s history itself, accentuates the need for an active communal retrieval and rewriting of history by illustrating the dangerous effects of an unresolved past on the present.
• “The skin inbetween [Sethe’s] forefinger and thumb was lean as China silk and there wasn’t a lump of clothing that didn’t sag on her. Beloved. was getting fatter, bbw by the day” (Morrison 281).
— Close reading analysis.
—Topic sentence: But in Beloved’s exorcism, Morrison shows that the past can ultimately be resolved through an active communal rewriting of individual history.
• “They grouped, murmuring and murmuring, but did not step foot in the yard. Denver eyed lowered goes, but could not hear the lead prayer—only the earnest syllables of agreement that backed it: Yes, yes, yes, oh yea. Hear me. Hear me. Do it, Maker, do it. Yes” (304-305).
• “Then Denver, running too. Away from [Beloved] to the pile of people out there. They make a hill. A hill of black people, falling” (309).
— Beloved shows that the past has bearing on the present. It is individual and cannot be forgotten. In terms of modern day readers, Morrison seems to be advocating a retrieval of the history of slavery that is often forgotten.
Student Learning Center, University of California, Berkeley
The word “synthesis” is defined as a combination of elements to form a connected entire. Thus, a synthesis essay definition is an essay that combines different ideas into a entire to prove a point (otherwise called the thesis). Often, it comes with a text that you should analyze.
Writing a Synthesis Essay
A key factor of writing a synthesis essay is an analysis of a given text or a prompt. In order to successfully analyze it, you must comprehend the text’s purpose, rhetoric, and the argument that the author’s claim, in other words, you are answering the question: “So what?”. Then, you must build your own claim, and write an essay around that.
Synthesis Essay Topics
A synthesis essay prompt must be negotiable. Like in the example above, Andrew Jackson’s negative views on Native American people were widely supported, today, however, they would be appalling. Depending on your assignment, you may have to choose a primary text. Choose a text that might have opposing viewpoints.
Good topics would be ones that are debatable, for example:
How do I write a thesis?
Once you pick a topic, read your sources and establish your position. Make sure you accurately analyze the sources and get a good understanding of them, structure your claim or argument and write your thesis.
Example: Andrew Jackson’s fear of the Native American “savages” reflects the prejudices and ideas of the colonist people in the Union and the Congress.
How do I write a synthesis essay outline?
Creating an outline will help maintain the structure of your paper. If your essay is split into three parts, split your outline into three chunks. Paste supporting evidence, sub-arguments, and specific points in the suitable sections. Make sure that every point somehow proves the claim in your thesis. Extra information or tangents will only hinder your essay. However, if information goes against your central claim, then you should acknowledge it as it will make your essay stronger. Make sure you have read all of your sources. When writing about the sources, do not summarize them; synthesis denotes analysis, not plot-summary.
Main point 1
Main point Two
Main point Three
Main point 1
Evidence (quote from a source)
Analysis of Evidence
Main point Two
Main point Three
Restate main points and reaction unanswered questions
How do I format my synthesis essay?
Synthesis essay format depends on what format is required by your teacher or professor. The most common formats are: MLA, APA, and Chicago style. APA is used by fields of Education, Psychology, and Science. MLA is used for citing Humanities, and Chicago style is used for Business, History, and Fine Arts. Purdue Owl is a format guide that concentrates mainly on MLA and APA, and Easybib is a citation multitool for any of your outer sources.
Some key points are:
Times Fresh Roman 12 pt font dual spaced
Top right includes last name and page number on every page
Titles are centered
The header should include your name, your professor’s name, course number and the date (dd/mm/yy)
Last page includes a Works Cited
Times Fresh Roman 12 pt font dual spaced 1” margins
Include a page header on the top of every page
Insert page number on the right
Essay should be divided into four parts: Title Page, Abstract, Main Assets, and References.
How do I write an AP English Synthesis Essay?
AP English Language and Composition is an utterly rigorous course that requires you to write essays that demonstrate deep understanding of the subject matter. In fact, if on the AP exam, your essay has flawless grammar and structure, you might still be awarded just 1 out of 9 points for not “defending, challenging, or qualifying your claim.” Sounds difficult, but it is doable. Before injecting any AP class, it is best to read over the course overview and become familiar with the exam.
While writing, concentrate on the three branches of the AP English and Composition course: argument, synthesis, and rhetorical analysis.
Argument is the easiest component; create your claim and find specific supporting evidence. Coax your reader that you are right.
Synthesis requires you to read into numerous perspectives and identify an agreement and a disagreement inbetween sources. This step is crucial to finding your own claim.
Rhetorical analysis deals with the author and his intentions. What was their purpose for writing this? Who is their intended audience? How does the author appeal to the audience and how does he structure his claim?
Synthesis Essay Tips
There are two acronyms that are helpful with the three AP Lang writing branches:
Peak #1: SOAPS
Example text: Andrew Jackson’s speech to the Congress about sending Native Americans to the West.
Speaker: Identify the speaker of the lump, then analyze for bias and apply any prior skill that you have on the speaker.
Example: President Andrew Jackson had a bias against Native Americans. A lump written by Andrew Jackson about Native Americans will most likely be written with a bias against him.
Occasion: Determine the time and the place of the written text, then identify the reason the text was written. Even if you aren’t sure in the reason, assume one and make your claim around it.
Example: Andrew Jackson was in office from 1829 to 1837. At this time, the Congress sent Native Americans to the West in order to clear the land for the colonists. Jackson was the one who made the proposal.
Audience: Who was the text directed to?
Example: Andrew Jackson’s speech was directed to a council.
Purpose: What is the text attempting to say? Here, you analyze the tone of the text.
Example: Andrew Jackson appeals to pathos by calling Indians “savages”. His purpose is to portray Native Americans in a negative light, so the Congress passes the Indian Removal Act.
Subject: What is the main idea? What is the claim?
Example: Andrew Jackson wants the Congress to pass the Indian Removal Act because he believes Native Americans are uncultured and savage people.
Peak #Two: Logos, Ethos, and Pathos
As you’ve very likely learned before, Logos appeals to reason, Pathos appeals to emotion, and Ethos appeals to moral philosophy or credibility. However, for the AP Lang exam requires a broader understanding of the three.
If the text uses facts, statistics, quotations, and definitions, the speaker is appealing to Logos. Constituting various backup information is an utterly effective for people who want to persuade.
If the text uses vivid imagery and strong language it denotes Pathos, which is used to connect the audience to a lump emotionally; it is hardest to switch the mind of a person who is linked to a subject via a strong emotion.
If the text attempts to demonstrate the speakers reliability or credibility, it is a direct appeal to Ethos. Using the example above, Andrew Jackson could have appealed to Ethos by stating the fact that he is the President of the United States, and thus, knows what is best for the union.
Often, Logos, Ethos, and Pathos leads to the use of logical fallacies.
Peak #Three: DIDLS
This is a good shorthand for all textual analysis. While reading a text, attempt to pinpoint D iction, I magery, D etails, L anguage, and S entence Structure in a lump. If anything stands out, add it into your analysis.
Synthesis Essay Rubric
High range essay (8-9 points)
Effectively develops a position on the assigned topic.
Demonstrates utter understanding of the sources or text.
Correctly synthesizes sources and develops a position. The writer drives the argument, not the sources.
The writer’s argument is persuading.
The writer makes no general assertions and cites specific evidence for each point. His/her evidence is developed and answers the “so what?” question.
The essay is clear, well-organized, and coherent. It is a stand alone chunk rather than an exam response.
Contains very few grammatical and spelling errors or flaws, if any.
Note: 8-9 essays are an extreme rarity. A strong ‘7’ paper can leap to an 8-9 if the writing style is mature and perceptive.
Middle-Range Essay (57)
Adequately develops a position on the assigned topic.
Demonstrates sufficient understanding of the ideas developed in sources
Adequately summarizes the sources and assumes some control of the argument. ‘5’ essays are less focused than ‘6’ and ‘7’.
The writer’s argument is sufficient, but less developed.
Writer successfully synthesizes the sources and cites them.
Writer answers the “So what?” question but may use generalizations or assertions of universal truth. Writer cites own practice and specific evidence.
Essay is clear and well organized. ‘5’ essays less so.
Contains few minor errors of grammar or syntax.
Note: A ‘7’ is awarded to papers of college-level writing. A ‘5’ on one of the AP English Language and Composition essays designates a Three on the AP exam. It most likely relies on generalizations has limited control of the claim and argument. ‘5’ essays often lose concentrate and digress.
Low-Range Essays (1-4)
Inadequately develops a position on the assigned topic.
The author misunderstands and simplifies the ideas developed in the sources.
Over-summarizes the sources, lets the sources drive the argument.
Writer has powerless control of organization and syntax. Essay contains numerous grammatical/spelling errors.
Writer does not cite the sources correctly, skips a citation, or cites fewer than the required minimum of the sources.
Notes: ‘4’ or ‘3’ essays do assert an argument but do not adequately develop it.
A ‘2’ essay do not develop an argument.
A 1-2 essay have severe writing errors and do not assert a claim.
Essay Writing Advice From Our Professional Team
The article reviews the basics of how to write a synthesis essay as well as how to dissect and analyze text when writing an AP English essay. One thing I would like to reemphasize is the importance of your thesis statement. When you write an essay for class or exam, make sure to state your argument clearly. If the reader of your essay doesn’t understand your point of view then what you’ve written is futile.
My advice is: when writing an essay in a brief period (such as in an exam room) make sure to articulate your argument in every paragraph and connect every single one of your ideas to the thesis. My peak is to write your thesis down on a lump of paper and reread it at every point to ensure that the information applies and reinforces what you’ve stated in your thesis. This peak also goes for when you are writing a longer chunk of writing, as it is very effortless to lose concentrate and stray away from your main point.
James Owen. online essay writer from EssayPro
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How to Write a Synthesis Essay
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Springer Nature retracts 58 articles authored by Iranian researchers
On November 1, Springer Nature announced that Springer and BioMed Central have determined to retract a total of 58 articles published by Iran-based authors across seven journals. The publisher received allegations of plagiarism, following which an investigation was conducted. Since definite signs of peer review and authorship manipulation were observed, the publisher determined to pull down the worried articles. The exact reasons behind the mass retraction are unavailable, but Springer Nature will publish retraction notices in this week.
While BioMed Central has identified 28 articles that will be retracted, Springer has identified 30 articles for retraction. The massive cleanup might not end here, since both the organizations are conducting further investigation to identify any other articles that may have been compromised. A spokesperson for the publishers said, “A much more elaborate manipulation has taken place from a different group of authors” which prevented them from discovering the misconduct at an earlier stage. Springer Nature has clarified in the press release that “The decision to retract these articles is solely to correct the scientific record,” and that they “do not have any evidence to be able to determine the involvement of each of the individual authors.”
To prevent the reoccurrence of such an incident, the publisher has revised its policies on authorship and aims to develop quality checks that would help editors to identify potential signs of misconduct.
What causes peer review scams and how can they be prevented?
Springer retracts 64 papers from its journals alleging fake reviews
Stolen identities? What authors can learn from the case of SAGE’s mass retraction