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An overview of the ORCID Survey 2015

An overview of the ORCID Survey 2015

Most of you may be familiar with ORCID. ORCID (Open Research and Contributor Identifier) is a non-profit, community-based initiative aimed at creating unique identifiers for researchers across organizations, disciplines, and geographies. Researchers are encouraged to register for ORCID as its unique 16-digit numeric identifier is linked to their research work and achievements, ensuring that they get credit for their work.

To understand researchers’ awareness and perceptions of ORCID, a survey was conducted by ORCID which ran from August 2015 to September 2015. The results of the survey were published in a report called ORCID Survey 2015. The survey was taken by 6000 individuals, of which 62% were researchers. Most of the respondents were based in Western Europe, North America, and Asia; and were mainly associated with a university, government, or non-profit research organization.

Some of the key findings of the survey are as goes after:  

Awareness about ORCID: Only 9% of the respondents were unaware of ORCID iDs. There was high awareness that ORCID is free for researchers (75%) and that it is a not-for-profit (63%). However, there was low awareness (34%) of the annual public data file and the fresh peer review service. About 70% of respondents confirmed that they have an ORCID iD.

Reasons for ORCID registration: 60% of ORCID iD holders believed that “persistent identifiers are a way of helping the internet work better for research,” which was the top reason for registering personally. The other major reasons respondents gave for registering for ORCID were: ORCID iDs are free to researchers (80%); lightly connect their research output (80%); make it lighter for people to find and share their work (80%); and are a unique identifier for a researcher’s entire career (78%).

Channels of information about ORCID: According to the survey, respondents are most likely to have heard about ORCID through colleague recommendation (31%) or their publisher (29%); 43% recall being prompted to provide their iD when they submitted their most latest manuscript.  

Usage of ORCID by holders: They are most likely to use their ORCID iD when submitting manuscripts for publication (55.7%), at their university (25.8%), and when applying for grants (13%). 26% do not presently use their ORCID iD at all

Connecting ORCID with publications: Respondents in all disciplines expect to be able to connect their publications to their ORCID record – especially journal articles (92%), books (73%), and book chapters (66%). There are differences by discipline in terms of connecting other research contributions; for example, researchers belonging to life sciences want to connect data sets while those belonging to humanities want to connect presentations.  

Attributes researchers associate with ORCID: Top attributes associated with ORCID are “open,” “new,” “approachable,” “efficient,” and “easy to work with.” ORCID is least likely to be seen as unnecessary, hard to work with, a no-brainer, awkward, and complicated. Non-record holders were significantly more likely to view ORCID as unnecessary or unknown.

Views about ORCID mandates: There is significant support for ORCID mandates: 72% of all respondents agreed or strongly agreed that these would benefit the global research community, 21% were neutral, and only 7% disagreed or strongly disagreed. Similarly, inbetween two thirds and three quarters would find it useful if their publisher (75%), institution (67%), funder (67%), or professional society (64%) mandated ORCID iDs.

The report provides significant insights into the level of awareness in academia about ORCID. The Director of Communications for ORCID, Alice Meadows, hopes to contact some of the survey respondents for future ORCID market research to deepen their understanding of ORCID’s presence in academia. 

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Footnotes in tables (part Two): formatting, spacing, and punctuation

Footnotes in tables (part Two): formatting, spacing, and punctuation

Now that we have dealt with the use of footnotes in tables in a general way [refer to the earlier post here], let us consider some points of detail.

Formatting the footnote marker: A footnote marker should stand out from the surrounding text, which is why it is common to make the superscript letters or numerals used as footnote markers bold. It is even more helpful not only to make the marker bold but also to italicize it so that it leans away from the text that it qualifies.

Make sure that in setting the marker as a superscript, you are not making the character too petite; if it is too puny, either use a larger font size or increase the default value for superscripts used by the software package.

If the font that you are using includes decent superscript numerals, use those. You can see the difference for yourself by comparing a superscripted Two with that obtained by pressing Alt + 0178 (2 versus ?). You will notice that decent superscripts are as dark as the rest of the text, whereas superscripted characters are lighter.

Lastly, check that the column alignment is intact: in a right-aligned column of numbers, for example, the number to which a footnote has been linked should not be shoved to the left to make room for the marker; instead, the marker is “draped,” that is, it is placed to the right of the number but outside the column.

Footnote marker at the foot: Some journal publishers do away with the superscript when the marker is reproduced at the foot instantly before the text of the footnote. The ? used as a footnote marker in the table, for example, will be printed as Two at the foot of the table. These “unsuperscripted” characters are sometimes referred to as “in-line” characters. Observe the practice followed by the target journal and use that.

The text of the footnote commences instantly – with a minimal gap – after the footnote marker. If the superscript form is retained, beginning the text of the footnote with a capital letter can obscure the marker. Again, go after the style of the target journal.

Terminal punctuation: If the text of the footnote is a finish sentence or runs to more than a single sentence, use total stops (periods) as adequate. If the text is a single word or a phrase or a sentence fragment, no terminal punctuation is required.

More than one footnote in a line: Short footnotes are usually set as a block of text. In other words, the footnotes are “run on” one after the other, separated with a single space, the block being as broad as the lines that make up the normal text or as broad as the table to which the footnotes are affixed. However, do not arrange the footnotes in columns even if the target journal uses such a layout. It is then best to begin each footnote on a fresh line and leave the layout to the publisher.

The following article gives a more detailed tutorial on how to present your tables and figures for the best possible influence: Tips on effective use of tables and figures in research papers. 

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Cause and effect papers use analysis to examine the reasons for and the outcomes of situations. They are an attempt to detect either the origins of something, such as an event or a decision, the effects or results that can be decently attributed to it, or both.

Cause and effect papers reaction questions like the following (“A” is your topic):

  • Why did A happen? (discovering the causes of A)
  • What happened as a result of A? (discovering the effects of A)
  • What might happen as a result of A? (predicting further effects of A)

You may write a cause and effect paper primarily about causes, primarily about effects, or a combination of both.

Discovering causes
Before you begin writing or even researching, make a list of all the causes of this event you already know about. Ask questions like these: Why did this happen? What preconditions existed? Were the results foreseen? Could they have been foreseen? Then do some preliminary research, using what you already know to guide the direction of your reading. Switch or add to your original list of causes to reflect fresh information gathered from your research. Done in depth, this kind of analysis is likely to uncover an almost unlimited chain of linked causes, far more than you can effectively address in one paper. Identify one to three of them as more significant (or interesting, or overlooked) than the others. Then, acknowledging that numerous causes exist, limit your discussion to those most significant (or interesting, or overlooked).

As you brainstorm possible causes, do not fall into the trap of thinking that, simply because one event followed another, that there was necessarily a causal relationship. (The mere fact that four youths were seen running away from the scene of an brunt does not itself logically implicate them in the brunt; they could have been running for help, pursuing down the alleged criminal, or simply jogging by.)

Also, do not confuse a necessary precondition for a cause: A large number of costumed students milling about in downtown Chico on Halloween night may be a necessary precondition for a riot, but it is not, in itself, the cause of a riot.

As you write, use the transitions, or signal words, that tell readers you are demonstrating causal relationships inbetween your ideas:

The following example names the cause very first, followed by the effect:

Because the technology program received independent funding from grants and federal Title I funds, it was relatively untouched by the school district’s own budget cuts.

Discovering effects
If you choose to write about effects, very first brainstorm: Make a list of all the effects you know about, and use this list to direct your research to learn more. Have the effects had fine influence on history, culture, or your own life? Or have they had a petite influence with few results? Again, be sure you can demonstrate the causal relationship.

Just as there are usually several causes for anything, there are a multitude of effects that proceed from any one cause. Don’t attempt to address a long chain of effects in one paper. Acknowledge that many effects of various kinds exist, and then limit your discussion to the most significant ones.

Transition words that suggest to the reader that you are discussing effects include the following:

The following statement names a cause very first, and then an effect:

Employees at companies that suggest lithe work schedules are more productive and file fewer claims for mental-health benefits; consequently, the number of companies suggesting flextime is on the rise.

(As a matter of argument, you could claim that the example above shows two linked effects of the flextime policy: Very first, it caused employees to be more productive; and 2nd, their enhanced productivity, in turn, caused more companies to adopt flextime. Linked causes and effects are typical of this type of paper.)

Predicting results
Cause and effect papers often make predictions based on known facts, trends, and developments. Prediction moves from the known and observable into the unknown and possible. Prediction attempts to reaction questions like these: What are the possible or likely consequences? Are these results likely to have superb influence on my life or the lives of others? Are these results likely to have excellent influence on shaping public policy, society, or history? What preconditions would have to exist before my predictions could come about?

If you choose to make predictions, as is common, for example, in political science, education, science, and philosophy, be sure to use credible evidence and strong reasoning. If you do not treat predictions with finesse and ground them in established fact, they are apt to emerge fantastic and unbelievable.

Avoid overstating your case; use language couched in an suitable degree of uncertainty (might, may well be, is likely to, can expect, is entirely possible ). Signal words and verb forms such as these suggest to the reader that you are making the budge from observation to prediction:

Here is a prediction using two of the above transitions:

If the governor fails to clearly proclaim his position and take a leadership role in reforming the state’s workers’ compensation system, voters are likely to take matters into their own palms and call for a statewide referendum.

A cause and effect paper relies strongly on your analysis of the situation. Albeit there are many ways to interpret any situation and the effects that it has produced, in the end the wooing power of your paper depends on specific evidence, clear and persuading language, and logical development.

Peak Sheet

Cause and effect papers use analysis to examine the reasons for and the outcomes of situations. They are an attempt to detect either the origins of something, such as an event or a decision, the effects or results that can be decently attributed to it, or both.

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Street brainy vs book clever essay

Street brainy vs book clever essay

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Nature Nanotechnology: Quick facts and obedience tips

Nature Nanotechnology: Quick facts and obedience tips

Aims & Scope 

Nature Nanotechnology publishes papers in all areas of nanoscience and nanotechnology that are of utmost quality and significance, covering research into the design, characterization and production of structures, devices and systems that consists the manipulation and control of materials and phenomena at atomic, molecular and macromolecular scales. Bottom-up, top-down, and combinations of these two approaches are covered.

The journal encourages communication of ideas among chemists, physicists, material scientists, biomedical researchers, engineers and other active researchers. It covers basic research in physics, chemistry and biology, including computational work and simulations, the development of fresh devices and technologies for applications in a broad range of industrial sectors (including information technology, medicine, manufacturing, high-performance materials, and energy and environmental technologies). Materials ranging organic, inorganic, and hybrid are all covered.                                             


Nature Publishing Group

Frequency of Publication    


Editorial Information 

Chief Editor:

  • Fabio Pulizzi

Senior Editors:

  • Ai Lin Chun
  • Owain Vaughan
  • Alberto Moscatelli
  • Elisa De Ranieri

For more information about the editorial team:

Email: [email protected]



  • Manuscripts must be submitted online at
  • The author may opt for double-blind review:
  • Manuscripts that are conceptually similar are typically sent to the same referees. However, each of the co-submitted manuscripts must meet the criteria for publication without reference to the other paper. If one paper is substantially less finish or wooing than the other, it may be rejected, even if the papers reach the same conclusion.
  • Read about the journal’s peer-review policy here:





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Make the most of 2017: Pro tips for researchers at all career stages

Make the most of 2017: Pro tips for researchers at all career stages

Time seems to have flown by, and it’s 2017 already! It’s time once again to take stock of how things have been for us in the past year and begin afresh with gusto! The road to academic writing and publication is a bumpy one, and most of you must have had your fair share of fights with writing, long waiting times at journals, negative reviewer comments, or rejections over the past year. As you brace yourselves to face a fresh spate of challenges in the coming year, we want to support you in your journey, with some handy tips. These will, hopefully, make life a wee bit lighter for you in 2017.


We hope you will benefit from these tips. Feel free to download or print a copy for constant motivation!

If you have any tips that you would like to share with your fellow researchers, do mention them in the comments section below. If you have any questions about the academic writing and publication process, you can post a question on our Q&A forum. Our publication experts will be there to guide you. Wish you all a very blessed Fresh Year! Stay glad, stay healthy, and keep writing and publishing. Cheers!

2017 accomplished advice (Two).pdf

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