A clear sense of argument is essential to all forms of academic writing, for writing is thought made visible. Insights and ideas that occur to us when we encounter the raw material of the world—natural phenomena like the behavior of genes, or cultural phenomena, like texts, photographs and artifacts—must be ordered in some way so others can receive them and react in turn. This give and take is at the heart of the scholarly enterprise, and makes possible that vast conversation known as civilization. Like all human ventures, the conventions of the academic essay are both logical and playful. They may vary in expression from discipline to discipline, but any good essay should display us a mind developing a thesis, supporting that thesis with evidence, deftly anticipating protestations or counterarguments, and maintaining the momentum of discovery.
An essay has to have a purpose or motive; the mere existence of an assignment or deadline is not sufficient. When you write an descriptive essay or research paper, you are never simply transferring information from one place to another, or displaying that you have mastered a certain amount of material. That would be exceptionally boring—and besides, it would be adding to the glut of pointless utterance. Instead, you should be attempting to make the best possible case for an original idea you have arrived at after a period of research. Depending upon the field, your research may involve reading and rereading a text, performing an experiment, or cautiously observing an object or behavior.
By immersing yourself in the material, you begin to detect patterns and generate insights, guided by a series of unfolding questions. From a number of possibilities, one idea emerges as the most promising. You attempt to make sure it is original and of some importance; there is no point arguing for something already known, trivial, or widely accepted.
Thesis and Development
The essay’s thesis is the main point you are attempting to make, using the best evidence you can marshal. Your thesis will evolve during the course of writing drafts, but everything that happens in your essay is directed toward establishing its validity. A given assignment may not tell you that you need to come up with a thesis and defend it, but these are the unspoken requirements of any scholarly paper.
Determining upon a thesis can generate considerable anxiety. Students may think, “How can I have a fresh idea about a subject scholars have spent their entire lives exploring? I just read a few books in the last few days, and now I’m supposed to be an experienced?” But you can be original on different scales. We can’t possibly know everything that has been, or is being, thought or written by everyone in the world—even given the vastness and speed of the Internet. What is required is a rigorous, good faith effort to establish originality, given the requests of the assignment and the discipline. It is a good exercise via the writing process to stop periodically and reformulate your thesis as succinctly as possible so someone in another field could understand its meaning as well as its importance. A thesis can be relatively elaborate, but you should be able to distill its essence. This does not mean you have to give the game away right from the begin. Guided by a clear understanding of the point you wish to argue, you can spark your reader’s curiosity by very first asking questions—the very questions that may have guided you in your research—and cautiously building a case for the validity of your idea. Or you can embark with a provocative observation, inviting your audience to go after your own path of discovery.
The Pressure of Argument
Argument implies pressure but not combative fireworks. This pressure comes from the fundamental asymmetry inbetween the one who wishes to persuade and those who must be persuaded. The common ground they share is reason. Your objective is to make a case so that any reasonable person would be wooed of the reasonableness of your thesis. The very first task, even before you commence to write, is gathering and ordering evidence, classifying it by kind and strength. You might determine to budge from the smallest chunk of evidence to the most epic. Or you might begin with the most persuading, then mention other supporting details afterward. You could hold back a surprising chunk of evidence until the very end.
In any case, it is significant to review evidence that could be used against your idea and generate responses to anticipated protestations. This is the crucial concept of counterargument. If nothing can be said against an idea, it is most likely evident or vacuous. (And if too much can be said against it, it’s time for another thesis.) By not indicating an awareness of possible protestations, you might seem to be hiding something, and your argument will be weaker as a consequence. You should also become familiar with the various fallacies that can undermine an argument—the “straw man” fallacy, fallacies of causation and of analogy, etc.—and strive to avoid them.
The Structure of Argument
The heart of the academic essay is persuasion, and the structure of your argument plays a vital role in this. To persuade, you must set the stage, provide a context, and determine how to expose your evidence. Of course, if you are addressing a community of specialists, some aspects of a collective context can be taken for granted. But clarity is always a virtue. The essay’s objective should be described swiftly, by posing a question that will lead to your thesis, or making a thesis statement. There is considerable plasticity about when and where this happens, but within the very first page or two, we should know where we are going, even if some welcome suspense is preserved. In the figure of the paper, merely listing evidence without any discernible logic of presentation is a common mistake. What might suffice in conversation is too informal for an essay. If the point being made is lost in a welter of specifics, the argument falters.
The most common argumentative structure in English prose is deductive: embarking off with a generalization or assertion, and then providing support for it. This pattern can be used to order a paragraph as well as an entire essay. Another possible structure is inductive: facts, instances or observations can be reviewed, and the conclusion to be drawn from them goes after. There is no blueprint for a successful essay; the best ones demonstrate us a focused mind making sense of some manageable aspect of the world, a mind where insightfulness, reason, and clarity are joined.
Copyright 1998, Kathy Duffin, for the Writing Center at Harvard University