Comparison and contrast are processes of identifying how ideas, people, or things are alike (comparison) and how they are different (contrast). Albeit you have very likely been writing compare/contrast papers since grade school, it can be a difficult form to master.
Such assignments require you to budge beyond mere description by thinking deeply about the items being compared, identifying meaningful relationships inbetween them, and determining which qualities are most significant. This process involves evaluating, analyzing, and synthesizing your findings and presenting them in a meaningful, interesting, and logical way.
There are two general formats for compare and contrast papers:
1. The block, divided, or whole-to-whole format
Evaluates Subject A in its entirety and then Subject B in its entirety. This format can result in two separate papers, joined by an awkward transition. Go after the tips below to develop a seamless and unified paper using the block format:
- Provide a clear introduction and thesis that not only spells out the major similarities and differences you will be discussing but that answers the question, “So what? ”
- “Pepper” references to both topics via the paper, where suitable.
- Link the two sections with a strong transition that demonstrates the relationships inbetween the subjects. Remind the reader of your thesis, summarize the key points you have made about Subject A, and preview the points you will be making about Subject B.
- Conclude the paper by summarizing and analyzing the findings, once again reminding the reader of the relationships you have noted inbetween Subject A and Subject B
Two. The alternating, integrated, or point-by point comparison
Studies one point of similarity or difference about each subject, followed by a 2nd point, and so on. Some pointers:
When we very first begin thinking about a subject, we generally begin by listing evident similarities and differences, but as we proceed to explore, we should begin to notice qualities that are more significant, complicated, or subtle. For example, when considering apples and oranges, we would instantly observe that both are edible, both grow on trees, and both are about the size of a baseball. But such effortless observations don’t deepen our skill of apples and oranges. An interesting and meaningful compare/contrast paper should help us understand the things we are discussing more fully than we would if we were to consider them individually.
Selectivity: Sharpening the Concentrate
As you treatment a compare/contrast paper, ask the following questions:
Recognizing the Compare/Contrast Assignment
Some assignments use the words “compare, ” “contrast, ” “similarities, ” and “differences. ” Others may not use these terms but may nevertheless require you to compare and/or contrast. Still others may require comparison and/or contrast as only part of the assignment. Some examples:
Transitional Markers to Indicate Comparison and Contrast
Transitional markers are words or phrases that showcase the connections and relationships among ideas. They are often placed at or near the beginning of a sentence or paragraph. There are many such words, but here are some of the most useful terms:
Words to indicate comparison: in comparison, similarly, likewise, in the same way, parallel to, correlate, identically, akin to, consistent with, also, too, analogous to, correspondingly
Words to indicate contrast: in contrast, however, on the other arm, nevertheless, albeit, counter to, on the contrary, conversely, rather than, in opposition to, opposite of Sample Introductory Paragraph
Below is a sample of an introduction from a literary compare and contrast paper written by student Kate James: (Some of the terms she uses to indicate comparison and contrast are in boldface.)
Because America itself is still a relatively youthful nation, its poetry, too, lacks the years of history and growth that have defined the voices of other nations. However, within the past century, American poetry has developed into a distinctive and accomplished art of its own. The creation of this poetic voice is often attributed to Walt Whitman, who has been coined “the father of American poetry.” His revolutionary style and untraditional subject matter, exemplified in his renowned poem “Song of Myself,” have paved the way for future generations of American writers. Furthermore, his unique use of the line and breath has had a excellent influence on many poets’ own work, particularly the writing of the more contemporary poet Allen Ginsberg, whose controversial poem “Howl” echoes many of the characteristics of Whitman’s verse. However, while the form and content of “Howl” may have been influenced by “Song of Myself,” Ginsberg’s poem represents a transformation of Whitman’s use of the line, his first-person narration, and his vision of America. As Whitman’s sprawling lines open outward in the voice of a cosmic speaker who creates a positive view of America, Ginsberg’s poem does the opposite. using long lines that close inward to mimic the suffocation and madness that characterize the vision of America that he presents through the voice of a prophetic speaker.
After she developed the introduction and thesis, Kate had to determine which format would be most effective for organizing her argument and proving her thesis. One way to determine which structure to use is to create outlines that visually organize the information:
Sample Block Format Outline
- Poets’ Use of Line
- Voice of Very first Person Speaker
- Vision of America
Sample Integrated Format Outline
In this case, Kate determined that the integrated format would be more effective because it permitted for the side-by-side analysis of passages that illustrated the three primary qualities that she noticed in the poems.
Sample Paragraph in the Block Format
In the following paragraph from “American Space, Chinese Place, ” writer Yi-Fu Tuan fully discusses space in America before turning to an analysis of place in China:
Americans have a sense of space, not of place. Go to an American home in exurbia, and almost the very first thing you do is drift toward the picture window. How nosey that the very first compliment you pay your host inwards his house is to say how lovely it is outside his house! He is pleased that you should admire his vistas. The distant horizon is not merely a line separating earth from sky, it is a symbol of the future. The American is not rooted in his place, however lovely: his eyes are drawn by the expanding space to a point on the horizon, which is his future. By contrast. consider the traditional Chinese home. Blank walls enclose it. Step behind the spirit wall and you are in a courtyard with perhaps a miniature garden around a corner. Once inwards his private compound you are packaged in an ambiance of peaceful beauty, an ordered world of buildings, pavement, rock, and decorative vegetation. But you have no distant view: nowhere does space open out before you. Raw nature in such a home is experienced only as weather, and the only open space is the sky above. The Chinese is rooted in his place. When he has to leave, it is not for the promised land on the terrestrial horizon, but for another world altogether along the vertical, religious axis of his imagination.
–from DiYanni, Robert and Pat C. Hoy. Frames of Mind. Thomson Wadsworth. 2005. p. 260
Sample Paragraph in the Alternating Format
In the book Oranges, author John McPhee wished to help readers appreciate the difference inbetween Florida and California oranges. Here’s a sample paragraph from the book:
An orange grown in Florida usually has a thick and tightly fitting skin, and is also strenuous with juice. Californians say that if you want to eat a Florida orange you have to get into a bathtub very first. California oranges are light in weight and have thick skins that break lightly and come off in hunks. The skin inwards is marvelously sweet, and the segments almost separate themselves. In Florida, it is said that you can run over a California orange with a ten-ton truck and not even moist the pavement. The differences from which these hyperboles arise will prevail in the two states even if the type of orange is the same. In arid climates, like California’s, oranges develop a thick albedo, which is the white part of the skin. Florida is one of the two or three most rained-upon states in the United States. California uses the Colorado Sea and similarly astounding sources to irrigate its oranges, but of course irrigation can only do so much. The annual difference in rainfall inbetween the Florida and California orange-growing areas is one million one hundred and forty thousand gallons per acre. For years, California was the leading orange-growing state, but Florida surpassed California in 1942, and grows three times as many oranges now. California oranges, for their part. can securely be called three times as beautiful.
–from DiYanni, Robert and Pat C. Hoy. Frames of Mind. Thomson Wadsworth. 2005. p. 260
Fran Hooker & Kate James, Webster University Writing Center, 2007